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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 4, 2022
Registration No. 333-   
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form F-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
Immunocore Holdings plc
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Not Applicable
(Translation of registrant’s name into English)
England and Wales
Not Applicable
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
92 Park Drive
Milton Park
Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 4RY
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 1235 438600
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Immunocore, LLC
Six Tower Bridge, Suite 200
181 Washington Street
Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428
United States
+1 484 534 5261
(Name, address and telephone number of agent for service)
Copies of all communications, including communications sent to agent for service, should be sent to:
Divakar Gupta
Courtney T. Thorne
Eric W. Blanchard
Cooley LLP
55 Hudson Yards
New York, New York 10001
+1 212 479 6000
Claire Keast-Butler
Cooley (UK) LLP
22 Bishopsgate
London EC2N 4BQ
United Kingdom
+44 20 7583 4055
APPROXIMATE DATE OF COMMENCEMENT OF PROPOSED SALE TO THE PUBLIC: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.C. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective on filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☒
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.C. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.
Emerging growth company ☒
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☒

The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

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PROSPECTUS


Ordinary Shares
American Depositary Shares representing Ordinary Shares
Debt Securities
Warrants
From time to time, we or any selling shareholder may offer and sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, either individually or in combination with other securities. We or any selling shareholder may also offer American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, representing ordinary shares upon conversion of or exchange for the debt securities or upon the exercise of the warrants.
This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide you with the specific terms of any offering in one or more supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, as well as any documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, carefully before you invest.
We or any selling shareholder will sell these securities directly to investors, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers, on a continuous or delayed basis. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section titled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement. If any underwriters or agents are involved in the sale of our securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters or agents and any applicable fees, commissions or discounts and over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds that we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement. Unless otherwise set forth in a prospectus supplement, we will not receive any proceeds from the sale of securities by selling shareholders.
Our ADSs representing our ordinary shares are listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “IMCR.” On April 1, 2022, the last reported sale price of our ADSs on the Nasdaq Global Select Market was $31.05 per ADS. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings, if any, on The Nasdaq Global Select Market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement. Prospective purchasers of our securities are urged to obtain current information as to the market prices of our securities, where applicable.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks that we have described on page 8 of this prospectus under the caption “Risk Factors” and under the caption “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We may also include specific risk factors in supplements to this prospectus under the caption “Risk Factors.” This prospectus may not be used to sell our securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is April 4, 2022.


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of an automatic shelf registration statement on Form F-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Under this shelf registration process, we or selling shareholders may offer our ordinary shares, including ADSs representing our ordinary shares, debt securities and/or warrants either individually or in combination with other securities, in one or more offerings. There is no limit on the aggregate amount of the securities that we or selling securityholders may offer pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we or selling shareholders may offer.
Each time we or selling shareholders offer to sell securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in any documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference,” before investing in any of the securities offered.
THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.
Neither we, nor any selling shareholder, agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. This prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor do this prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction.
You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference, even though this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is delivered, or securities are sold, on a later date.
This prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Unless otherwise indicated in this prospectus, “Immunocore,” “the company,” “our company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Immunocore Holdings plc and its subsidiaries.
“Immunocore” and “KIMMTRAK” are registered trademarks of Immunocore. All other trademarks and registered trademarks contained in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, trademarks, tradenames and service marks referred to in this prospectus (including the documents incorporated by reference) appear without the ®, ™ and SM symbols, but the absence of those symbols is not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert our rights or that the applicable owner will not assert its rights to these trademarks, tradenames and service marks to the fullest extent under applicable law.
All references in this prospectus to “$” mean U.S. dollars and all references to “£” and “GBP” mean pounds sterling.
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
The following summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. We urge you to read this entire prospectus, including the more detailed consolidated financial statements, notes to the consolidated financial statements and other information incorporated by reference from our other filings with the SEC, or included in any applicable prospectus supplement. Investing in our securities involves risks. Therefore, carefully consider the risk factors set forth in any prospectus supplements and in our most recent filings with the SEC including our Annual Reports on Form 20-F and reports on Form 6-K, as well as other information in this prospectus and any prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, before purchasing our securities. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities.
Company Overview
We are a commercial-stage biotechnology company pioneering the development of a novel class of TCR bispecific immunotherapies called ImmTAX - Immune mobilizing monoclonal TCRs Against X disease - designed to treat a broad range of diseases, including cancer, infectious and autoimmune. Leveraging our proprietary, flexible, off-the-shelf ImmTAX platform, we are developing a deep pipeline in multiple therapeutic areas, including five clinical stage programs in oncology and infectious disease, advanced pre-clinical programs in autoimmune disease and multiple earlier pre-clinical programs. Our lead product, KIMMTRAK, is a first-in-class TCR therapeutic approved for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic uveal melanoma, or mUM, in the United States.
We have three clinical stage programs within our ImmTAC (Immune mobilizing monoclonal TCRs Against Cancer) platform, including KIMMTRAK. Our clinical programs are being conducted with patients with a broad range of cancers including melanoma, lung, gastric, head and neck and ovarian, among others. As of December 31, 2021, we have dosed over 700 cancer patients with our ImmTAX product candidates, which we believe is the largest clinical data set of any bispecific in a solid tumor and any TCR therapeutic. Our other ImmTAX product candidates have the potential to address other tumor types with larger addressable patient bispecific therapeutic populations and significant unmet need, and we are studying the application of our ImmTAX platform to infectious diseases and autoimmune conditions.
Our Lead Product - KIMMTRAK
On January 26, 2022, we announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, approved KIMMTRAK (tebentafusp-tebn) for the treatment of patients with unresectable or mUM. KIMMTRAK is the first TCR therapeutic to receive regulatory approval from the FDA, the first bispecific T cell engager to receive regulatory approval from the FDA to treat a solid tumor, and the first and only therapy for the treatment of unresectable or mUM to be approved by the FDA.
On April 1, 2022 the European Commission approved KIMMTRAK for the treatment of HLA-A*02:01-positive adult patients with unresectable or mUM. The European Commission approval follows a positive opinion by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use, or CHMP, in February 2022. The CHMP recommendation of KIMMTRAK is based on the results of Immunocore’s Phase 3 IMCgp100-202 clinical trial. The European Commission has the authority to approve medicines for use throughout the European Union, and in Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway following completion of related national procedures. We anticipate launching KIMMTRAK in Europe in the second quarter of 2022. We also intend to continue to support patients through our global early access program, which allows us to offer KIMMTRAK as a treatment to mUM patients as regulatory approval is sought in the European Union and their respective European countries. As of December 31, 2021, there were over 200 mUM patients enrolled in the program.
In addition, the United Kingdom’s Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Agency, or MHRA, Health Canada, and Australia’s Department of Health Therapeutic Goods Administration, or TGA, have each accepted the submission of our Marketing Authorisation Application, or MAA.
KIMMTRAK is manufactured at facilities located in Denmark and Germany. We are supporting the appropriate use of KIMMTRAK in the United States through a well-equipped and fit-for-purpose commercial team that includes medical, sales, and value access team members. We utilize a hybrid model that includes in-house and
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contracted resources in the United States and Europe. KIMMTRAK commercial supply was made available shortly after the FDA approval for the treatment of patients with unresectable or mUM. We also launched a payer program called KIMMTRAKConnect with the goal to help ensure patients in the United States have access to KIMMTRAK, including financial assistance, personalized support and education, and site of care coordination for eligible patients. To support our commercial efforts outside the United States assuming receipt of regulatory approvals, we entered into an exclusive multi-regional agreement with Medison Pharma Ltd. to help seek regulatory authorization and commercialize KIMMTRAK in Canada, 20 markets across Central Eastern Europe and Israel.
Our ImmTAX Platform and ImmTAX Bispecific Therapeutics
Unlike antibody targeted immunotherapies that have a relatively small target pool, our approach relies on the power of T cell receptors, or TCRs, which are naturally occurring receptors found on the surface of T cells that have the ability to target nearly all of the human proteome. Natural TCRs give T cells the ability to scan for abnormalities in nearly any cell in the body that are presented as protein fragments, or antigens, by human leukocyte antigen, or HLA, on the cell surface. Our ImmTAX platform builds upon these natural TCRs to engineer soluble targeted and high-affinity TCRs. By engineering these TCRs, using our ImmTAX platform, we are developing off-the-shelf, bispecific therapeutics, which are able to precisely target a wide range of proteins uniquely expressed by unhealthy and abnormal cells that cannot be targeted by current antibody-based immunotherapies.
Our ImmTAX bispecific therapeutics couple the targeting power of these engineered TCRs on one end with the other end displaying pre-optimized effector functions, which have the ability to drive a desired immune response at the site of the disease. This combination is designed to provide us with significant flexibility as we are able to engineer and tailor our ImmTAX therapeutics to target proteins that are specific to the disease we are trying to treat and then modulate the corresponding immune response by either boosting or inhibiting the immune system.
Our Pipeline
We are currently leveraging our ImmTAX platform within three therapeutic areas: oncology, infectious disease and autoimmune disease. We have named each of these platforms according to their therapeutic area to distinguish the type of target recognized by the TCR targeting system and the selected effector function. We have five clinical stage assets as well as numerous pre-clinical programs. While our most advanced clinical programs are focused on developing treatments for oncology, we believe our ImmTAX platform is versatile, and will also allow us to develop therapeutics with significant advantages in the treatment of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Our current pipeline is represented in the diagram below.

Our ImmTAC Platform (Oncology)
Within our ImmTAC platform, we have three clinical stage programs (including KIMMTRAK) and additional pre-clinical programs (two of which are shown in the diagram above), focusing on the treatment of solid tumors
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with high unmet medical needs. Our ImmTAC product candidates are bispecific, soluble TCR molecules featuring an antigen-specific targeting module based on our high-affinity, highly specific TCR system and our proprietary cluster of differentiation 3 effector module for T cell recruitment, engagement and activation.
Our ImmTAC programs include:
KIMMTRAK (tebentafusp-tebn), our ImmTAC molecule targeting an HLA-A*02:01 gp100 antigen, is our first approved product. We announced FDA approval of KIMMTRAK on January 26, 2022 for the treatment of HLA-A*02:01-positive adult patients with unresectable or mUM. KIMMTRAK demonstrated monotherapy activity and recently achieved the primary endpoint of superior overall survival in a randomized Phase 3 clinical trial in patients with previously untreated mUM against the investigator’s choice of treatment. The OS hazard ratio in the intent-to-treat population favored tebentafusp, HR=0.51 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.71); p< 0.0001, over investigator’s choice (82% pembrolizumab; 13% ipilimumab; 6% dacarbazine). The FDA reviewed KIMMTRAK under the Real-Time Oncology Review pilot program, an initiative of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence designed to expedite the delivery of safe and effective cancer treatments to patients, and the FDA’s Project Orbis initiative, which enables concurrent review by the health authorities in partner countries that have requested participation. On April 1, 2022 the European Commission approved KIMMTRAK (tebentafusp-tebn) for the treatment of HLA-A*02:01-positive adult patients with unresectable or mUM.
We are also developing tebentafusp for the treatment of metastatic cutaneous melanoma, or mCM, which is another indication with unmet medical need. In November 2021, we presented data from our Phase 1b clinical trial of tebentafusp in patients with mCM at the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer’s 36th Annual Meeting. Preliminary evidence of tebentafusp clinical activity in mCM patients who had prior anti-PDL1 therapy included 1-year overall survival rate of 76%. We anticipate initiating a Phase 2 randomized clinical trial in patients with mCM with and without anti-PDL1 therapies in the fourth quarter of 2022.
IMC-C103C, our ImmTAC molecule targeting an HLA-A*02:01 MAGE-A4 antigen, is currently being evaluated in a first-in-human, Phase ½ dose escalation clinical trial in patients with solid tumor cancers including non-small-cell lung cancer, or NSCLC, gastric, head and neck, ovarian and synovial sarcoma. In December 2021, we reported initial Phase 1 data from this trial at the European Society of Medical Oncology Immuno-Oncology Congress (ESMO-IO) 2021. Preliminary data from the trial showed that IMC-C103C promising clinical activity with confirmed durable responses in ovarian cancer and a confirmed durable response in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, or HNSCC and demonstrated a manageable safety profile. We have initiated an expansion arm cohort of the ongoing trial for patients with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma and plan to observe dosing at a level of 140 micrograms/week. We anticipate reporting additional data from the Phase 1 portion of the trial in the fourth quarter of 2022.
IMC-F106C, our ImmTAC molecule targeting an optimal HLA-A*02:01 PRAME antigen is currently being evaluated in a first-in-human, Phase ½ dose escalation trial in patients with multiple solid tumor cancers including NSCLC, SCLC, endometrial, ovarian, cutaneous melanoma, and breast cancers. As of December 31, 2021, we enrolled 39 patients in the Phase 1 clinical trial. Early pharmacodynamic data indicates that IMC-F106C monotherapy is demonstrating biological activity at the dose levels currently under evaluation. We anticipate reporting Phase 1 initial data from the trial in the third quarter of 2022.
Our ImmTAV Platform (Infectious Diseases)
Using our ImmTAV (Immune mobilizing monoclonal TCRs Against Virus) platform, we have advanced our first program into the clinic. Our ImmTAV product candidates are bispecific soluble TCR molecules featuring our ImmTAX TCR-based targeting system with high specificity for low-expression viral antigens, combined with the proprietary anti-CD3 effector module for T cell engagement and activation that has been evidenced by our clinical oncology pipeline. We are seeking to develop therapeutics that can provide a functional cure to chronic viral disease and are focusing initially on hepatitis B virus, or HBV, and human immunosuppression virus, or HIV.
Our ImmTAV programs include:
IMC-I109V, our ImmTAV molecule targeting a conserved hepatitis B virus, or HBV, envelope antigen, is our most advanced ImmTAV program and is currently being evaluated in a Phase ½ clinical trial in
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patients with chronic HBV who are non-cirrhotic, hepatitis B e-Antigen negative, and virally suppressed on chronic nucleot(s)ide analogue therapy. Our goal is to develop a functional cure for HBV, and we dosed the first patient in our Phase 1 single ascending dose trial in the second quarter of 2021.
IMC-M113V, our ImmTAV molecule targeting the human immunosuppression virus, or HIV, gag antigen bispecific TCR molecule, is currently in pre-clinical development. Our goal is to develop a functional cure for HIV. Our clinical trial application in the United Kingdom was accepted in December 2021, and we anticipate dosing the first patient in this trial during the second quarter of 2022. We plan to then expand the trial to Europe later in 2022.
Our ImmTAAI Platform (Autoimmune Diseases)
While our ImmTAC and ImmTAV platforms attempt to provide therapeutic benefit by driving an immune response against targeted cells, our ImmTAAI (Immune modulating monoclonal TCRs Against AutoImmune disease) platform leverages our ImmTAX platform to generate product candidates designed to provide precision targeted immunosuppression for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Our ImmTAAI product candidates are designed to target organs, tissues or immune cells and deliver an immune suppressive effector function. We have optimized two immune system modulating effector functions to provide local T cell inhibition, which we believe may limit any adverse effects originating from systemic immune suppression. We believe we can use our ImmTAAI platform to develop a portfolio of product candidates to treat autoimmune indications with a high unmet medical need and provide significant benefit to patients.
Recent Developments
As previously announced, in July 2014, we entered into a development and license agreement with Eli Lilly and Company, or Lilly, pursuant to which we and Lilly agreed to collaborate in the development, manufacture and commercialization of soluble TCR bispecific therapeutic compounds, which is referred to, as subsequently amended, as the Lilly Collaboration. Under the Lilly Collaboration, Lilly paid us an initial upfront fee payment of $45 million in exchange for options to three targets.
In November 2021, we presented pre-clinical data from the Lilly Collaboration at the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer’s (SITC) 36th Annual Meeting, where we demonstrated that our ImmTAC platform can be engineered to differentiate a single amino acid as well as our ability to develop a novel molecular mechanism for soluble TCR selectivity for single amino acid difference of a neoantigen versus the wild type peptide. We believe the Lilly Collaboration achieved our goal of engineering highly specific, affinity-enhanced T-cell receptor bispecifics capable of targeting the KRASG12D oncogene presented by two different HLAs. In March 2022, we and Lilly mutually agreed to terminate the Lilly Collaboration. Accordingly, the rights to two TCR candidates targeting KRASG12D pursued under the Lilly Collaboration reverted back to us, and no further obligations or payments are owed by us to Lilly.
On April 1, 2022 the European Commission approved KIMMTRAK (tebentafusp-tebn) for the treatment of HLA-A*02:01-positive adult patients with unresectable or mUM. The European Commission approval follows a positive opinion by the CHMP in February 2022. The CHMP recommendation of KIMMTRAK is based on the results of Immunocore’s Phase 3 IMCgp100-202 clinical trial.
Corporate Information
Immunocore Holdings plc was incorporated as Immunocore Holdings Limited, a private limited company under the laws of England and Wales on January 7, 2021 with company registration number 13119746 for the purpose of becoming the holding company of Immunocore Limited. Immunocore Limited was incorporated under the laws of England and Wales in December 2007, with company registration number 06456207. On January 22, 2021, each holder of series A preferred shares, series B preferred shares, series C preferred shares, G1 shares, G2 shares and ordinary shares in Immunocore Limited sold and transferred their shares to Immunocore Holdings Limited (now Immunocore Holdings plc) in exchange for receiving 100 shares of the same class in Immunocore Holdings Limited. We refer to this as our “Share Exchange”. On February 1, 2021, Immunocore Holdings Limited was re-registered as a public limited company with the name Immunocore Holdings plc. In addition, immediately prior to the completion of our initial public offering on February 9, 2021, all of the outstanding series A preferred shares, series B preferred shares and series C preferred shares in Immunocore Holdings plc
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were re-designated as ordinary shares and non-voting ordinary shares. The G1 shares in Immunocore Holdings plc were re-designated as deferred shares on a 1 for 1 basis. Each G2 share in Immunocore Holdings plc was subdivided and re-designated into one ordinary share and three deferred shares before such ordinary shares and deferred shares were consolidated into ordinary shares and deferred shares, respectively, on a 4 to 1 basis. All ordinary shares and non-voting ordinary shares with a nominal value of £0.0001 each resulting from those steps were consolidated into ordinary shares and non-voting ordinary shares with a nominal value of £0.002 each on a 20 to 1 basis.
Our registered office is located at 92 Park Drive, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 4RY, United Kingdom, and the telephone number of our registered office is +44 (0)1235 438600. Our principal executive offices in the United States are located at Six Tower Bridge, Suite 200, 181 Washington Street, Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428, and the telephone number of our U.S. office is +1 484 534 5261.
Our website address is www.immunocore.com. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider information on our website to be part of this prospectus. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Immunocore, LLC.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Foreign Private Issuer
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, or the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other burdens that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies in the United States. These provisions include:
an exemption from compliance with any requirement that the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board may adopt regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements;
reduced disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements;
an exemption from the non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation, including golden parachute arrangements; and
an exemption from the auditor attestation requirement in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
We may choose to take advantage of some but not all of these reduced requirements until we are no longer an emerging growth company. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest to occur of: (1) (a) December 31, 2026, (b) the last day of the fiscal year in which our annual gross revenue is $1.07 billion or more, or (c) the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer,” under the rules of the SEC which means the market value of our equity securities that are held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the end of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter and (2) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period. It is likely we will be deemed a “large accelerated filer” as of June 30, 2022, the last day of our next second fiscal quarter. If we are deemed a “large accelerated filer” as of June 30, 2022, we will cease being an emerging growth company as of January 1, 2023.
In addition, under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected to comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies.
We report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, as a non-U.S. company with foreign private issuer status. Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, as long as we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we will continue to be exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including:
the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations with respect to a security registered under the Exchange Act;
the requirement to comply with Regulation Fair Disclosure, or Regulation FD, which regulates selective disclosure of material information;
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the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their share ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and
the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information, or current reports on Form 8-K upon the occurrence of specified significant events.
Both foreign private issuers and emerging growth companies are also exempt from certain more stringent executive compensation disclosure rules. Thus, even when we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, as long as we remain a foreign private issuer, we will continue to be exempt from the more stringent compensation disclosures required of companies that are neither an emerging growth company nor a foreign private issuer. As a result, we do not know if some investors will find our ADSs less attractive, which may result in a less active trading market for our ADSs or more volatility in the price of our ADSs.
The Securities We May Offer
Under this prospectus, we or selling shareholders may offer ordinary shares, ADSs representing our ordinary shares, various series of debt securities or warrants to purchase our ordinary shares represented by ADSs, either individually or in combination with other securities, from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we or selling shareholders may offer. Each time we or selling shareholders offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:
designation or classification;
aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;
maturity, if applicable;
rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;
redemption, conversion or sinking fund terms, if any;
voting or other rights, if any; and
conversion or exercise prices, if any.
The prospectus supplement, and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you, also may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
We or selling shareholders may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We or selling shareholders, and our agents or underwriters, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we or selling shareholders offer securities through agents or underwriters, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:
the names of those agents or underwriters;
applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;
details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and
the net proceeds to us.
This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, as updated by our subsequent filings, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, before deciding whether to purchase any of the securities being registered pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations.
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the words “may,” “might,” “will,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “objective,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue” and “ongoing,” or the negative of these terms, or other comparable terminology intended to identify statements about the future. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus and, while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:
our ability to maintain regulatory approval of KIMMTRAK (tebentafusp-tebn) for mUM in the United States;
the timing of, and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of, KIMMTRAK in the European Union and respective European countries;
our expectations regarding the potential commercialization of, the marketing and therapeutic potential of KIMMTRAK for mUM;
our ability to build a sustainable pipeline of new medicine candidates, including but not limited to future generations of KIMMTRAK;
the expected clinical benefits of KIMMTRAK including extended overall survival benefit;
expectations regarding the timing of the commercial launch of KIMMTRAK, the timing of commercial availability and the ability to reach patients in a timely manner;
the value proposition of KIMMTRAK in mUM and benefit as an orphan indication including expectations regarding the potential market size opportunity;
our ability to successfully execute our sales and marketing strategy of KIMMTRAK in the United States, Europe and elsewhere, including continuing to successfully recruit and retain sales and marketing personnel and to successfully build the market for our medicines;
our expectations about the willingness of healthcare providers to recommend KIMMTRAK to people with mUM;
the rate and degree of market acceptance of our product candidates among physicians, patients, patient advocacy groups, third-party payors and the medical community and our ability and our distribution and marketing partners’ ability to obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement and pricing for, our medicines from government and third-party payers and risks relating to the success of our patient assistance programs;
the market opportunities for our product candidates may be smaller than we estimate and any approval that we obtain may be based on a narrower definition of the patient population;
the initiation, timing, progress and results of our current and future preclinical studies and clinical trials and related preparatory work and the period during which the results of the trials will become available, as well as our research and development programs;
our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;
our expectations regarding timing of regulatory filings for, or our ability to obtain regulatory approval of, tebentafusp in additional jurisdictions, or any of our other product candidates;
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our ability to obtain accelerated approval for current and future product candidates from the FDA, EMA and MHRA;
our ability to identify and develop additional product candidates using our ImmTAX platform;
business disruptions affecting the initiation, patient enrollment, clinical trial site monitoring, development and operation of our current and proposed clinical trials, as well as commercialization of our products, including KIMMTRAK, including a public health emergency, such as the ongoing coronavirus 2019, or COVID-19, pandemic;
the potential benefits of our product candidates;
our business strategies and goals;
our plans to collaborate, or statements regarding our current collaborations;
our ability to find future partners and collaborators;
the performance of our third-party suppliers and manufacturers,
our expectations regarding our ability to obtain, maintain and enforce intellectual property protection for our product candidates and our ability to operate our business without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property rights of others;
the effects of competition with respect to KIMMTRAK or any of our other current or future product candidates, as well as innovations by current and future competitors in our industry;
regulatory developments in the United States and other countries, including potential changes in healthcare laws and regulations;
our financial performance and our ability to effectively manage our anticipated growth;
our ability to identify, recruit and retain qualified employees;
the loss of key commercial or management personnel;
whether we are classified as a PFIC for current and future periods;
our ability to raise additional capital; and
our estimates regarding the period of time for which our current capital resources will be sufficient to fund our continued operations, future expenses, revenues and needs for additional financing and the accuracy thereof.
You should refer to the important factors in the cautionary statements included in this prospectus and in the other documents incorporated herein, for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all.
We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.
You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement, any free writing prospectuses that we or the selling shareholders may authorize for use in connection with an offering and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.
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OFFER AND LISTING DETAILS
We or selling shareholders may sell from time to time pursuant to this prospectus (as may be detailed in a prospectus supplement) an indeterminate number of our ordinary shares, ADSs representing our ordinary shares, various series of debt securities, and warrants to purchase our ordinary shares represented by ADSs, either individually or in combination with other securities. The actual price per share or per security of the securities that we or selling shareholders will offer pursuant hereto will depend on a number of factors that may be relevant as of the time of offer. See “Plan of Distribution.”
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CAPITALIZATION
The following table presents our total capitalization and cash as of December 31, 2021. You should read the financial data in the following table in conjunction with our financial statements and related notes incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
We maintain our books and records in pounds sterling. For the convenience of the reader, we have translated pound sterling amounts as of and for the period ended December 31, 2021 into U.S. dollars on December 31, 2021, which was £1.00 to $1.3500. These translations should not be considered representations that any such amounts have been, could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars at that or any other exchange rate as of that or any other date.
 
As of December 31,
2021
 
(in thousands)
Cash and cash equivalents
£237,886
$321,147
Non-current interest-bearing loans and borrowings
37,226
50,255
Shareholders’ equity:
 
 
Voting ordinary shares, nominal value £0.002 per share, 43,031,223 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2021
86
116
Non-voting ordinary shares, nominal value £0.002 per share, 831,627 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2021
2
2
Deferred shares, nominal value £0.0001 per share, 5,793,501 shares as of December 31, 2021
1
Share premium
212,238
286,521
Other reserves
440,613
594,828
Accumulated deficit
(481,392)
(649,879)
Total shareholders’ equity
171,547
231,589
Total capitalization
£208,773
$281,844
The number of ordinary shares outstanding in the table above does not include:
9,198,460 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding under our equity incentive plans as of December 31, 2021, with a weighted-average exercise price of $22.31 per share; and
1,523,231 ordinary shares reserved for future issuance under our 2021 EIP as of December 31, 2021.
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USE OF PROCEEDS
Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized to be provided to you in connection with a specific offering, we intend to use any net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus to fund the commercialization of our products, activities relating to the continued clinical development of our product candidates and for other general corporate purposes, including, but not limited to, working capital, capital expenditures, investments, acquisitions, should we choose to pursue any, and collaborations. We have not determined the amounts we plan to spend on any of the areas listed above or the timing of these expenditures. As a result, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds, if any, we receive in connection with securities offered pursuant to this prospectus for any purpose. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we may initially invest the net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade and interest-bearing securities.
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, we will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of securities by selling shareholders.
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SELLING SHAREHOLDERS
Selling shareholders are persons or entities that, directly or indirectly, have acquired or will from time to time acquire from us, our securities. Such selling shareholders may be parties to registration rights agreements with us, or we otherwise may have agreed or will agree to register their securities for resale. The initial purchasers of our securities, as well as their transferees, pledges, donees or successors, all of whom we refer to as “selling shareholders,” may from time to time offer and sell our securities pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.
The applicable prospectus supplement will set forth the name of each of the selling shareholders and the number of securities beneficially owned by such selling shareholder that are covered by such prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement will also disclose whether any of the selling shareholders has held any position or office with, has been employed by or otherwise has had a material relationship with us during the three years prior to the date of the applicable prospectus supplement.
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We or selling shareholders may offer securities under this prospectus from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We or selling shareholders may sell the securities (1) through underwriters or dealers, (2) through agents or (3) directly to one or more purchasers, or through a combination of such methods. We or selling shareholders may distribute the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at:
a fixed price or prices, which may be changed from time to time;
market prices prevailing at the time of sale;
prices related to the prevailing market prices; or
negotiated prices.
Each time that we or selling shareholders sell securities covered by this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement or supplements that will describe the method of distribution and set forth the terms and conditions of the offering of such securities, including the offering price of the securities and the proceeds to us, if applicable.
We or selling shareholders may directly solicit offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus. We or selling shareholders may also designate agents to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time, and may enter into arrangements for “at-the-market,” equity line or similar transactions. We will name in a prospectus supplement any underwriter or agent involved in the offer or sale of the securities.
If we or selling shareholders utilize a dealer in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we or the selling shareholders will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.
If we or selling shareholders utilize an underwriter in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we or the selling shareholders will execute an underwriting agreement with the underwriter at the time of sale, and we will provide the name of any underwriter in the prospectus supplement which the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we, the selling shareholders, or the purchasers of the securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and the underwriter may compensate those dealers in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions.
With respect to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions and block trades, we will provide in the applicable prospectus supplement information regarding any compensation we or selling shareholders pay to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We or selling shareholders may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments they may be required to make in respect thereof.
If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we or selling shareholders may authorize underwriters, dealers or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in each applicable prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in each applicable prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:
the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and
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if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.
One or more firms, referred to as “remarketing firms,” may also offer or sell the securities, if a prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with a remarketing arrangement upon their purchase. Remarketing firms will act as principals for their own accounts or as our agents. These remarketing firms will offer or sell the securities in accordance with the terms of the securities. Each prospectus supplement will identify and describe any remarketing firm and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and will describe the remarketing firm’s compensation. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with the securities they remarket. Remarketing firms may be entitled under agreements that may be entered into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.
Certain underwriters may use this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement for offers and sales related to market-making transactions in the securities. These underwriters may act as principal or agent in these transactions, and the sales will be made at prices related to prevailing market prices at the time of sale. Any underwriters involved in the sale of the securities may qualify as “underwriters” within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act. In addition, the underwriters’ commissions, discounts or concessions may qualify as underwriters’ compensation under the Securities Act and the rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA.
ADSs representing our ordinary shares sold pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part will be authorized for listing and trading on The Nasdaq Global Select Market. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing, if any, on The Nasdaq Global Select Market or any securities market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement. Underwriters may make a market in our ADSs, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence, development or maintenance of trading markets for any of the securities.
In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than we sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing the applicable security in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if the securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.
The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in other transactions with us, or perform other services for us, in the ordinary course of their business.
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DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION
The following describes our issued share capital, summarizes the material provisions of our articles of association and highlights certain differences in corporate law in England and Wales and Delaware, in the United States. Please note that this summary is not intended to be exhaustive. For further information, please refer to the full version of our articles of association, which are incorporated by reference herein.
General
Set forth below is a summary of certain information concerning our share capital as well as a description of certain provisions of our articles of association and relevant provisions of the Companies Act 2006, or the Companies Act. The summary below contains only material information concerning our share capital and corporate status and does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to our articles of association and applicable English law. Further, please note that holders of ADSs will not be treated as one of our shareholders and will not have any shareholder rights.
Immunocore Limited was incorporated under the laws of England and Wales in December 2007. Immunocore Holdings Limited was incorporated on January 7, 2021 as a private limited company under the laws of England and Wales with nominal assets and liabilities for the purpose of becoming the holding company of Immunocore Limited and consummating the corporate reorganization, further details of which are described in Note 30 to our Annual Report. On February 1, 2021, Immunocore Holdings Limited was re-registered as a public limited company with the name Immunocore Holdings plc.
Our registered office in the United Kingdom is located at 92 Park Drive, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 4RY, United Kingdom, and the telephone number of our registered office is +44 (0)1235 438600.
Our ordinary shares are registered under the Exchange Act, not for trading, but only in connection with the listing of the ADSs on The Nasdaq Global Select Market.
As of December 31, 2021, the issued and outstanding share capital of Immunocore Holdings plc was 43,862,850 ordinary shares, 12,003,203 of which were represented by ADSs and 831,627 of which were non-voting ordinary shares, and 5,793,501 deferred shares. The nominal value of the ordinary shares and the non-voting ordinary shares is £0.002 per share and each issued share is fully paid. The nominal value of the deferred shares is £0.0001 per share.
Our ADSs are listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the trading symbol “IMCR.”
Ordinary Shares
In accordance with our articles of association, the following summarizes the rights of holders of our ordinary shares:
each holder of our ordinary shares is entitled to one vote per ordinary share on all matters to be voted on by shareholders generally;
the holders of the ordinary shares shall be entitled to receive notice of, attend, speak and vote at our general meetings; and
the holders of our ordinary shares are entitled to receive such dividends as are recommended by our directors and declared by our shareholders.
See also “—Articles of Association” below.
Deferred Shares
In accordance with our articles of association, the following summarizes the rights of holders of our deferred shares:
the deferred shares shall not be entitled to any dividends or to any other right of participation in the income or profits of the Company;
on the return of assets on a winding-up of the Company, the deferred shares shall confer on the holders thereof an entitlement to receive out of the assets of the Company available for distribution amongst the members (subject to the rights of any new class of shares with preferred rights) the amount paid up or credited as paid up on the deferred shares held by them respectively after (but only after) payment
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shall have been made to the holders of the ordinary shares and non-voting ordinary shares (if any) of the amounts paid up or credited as paid up on such shares and the sum of £1,000,000 in respect of each ordinary share or non-voting ordinary share held by them respectively. The deferred shares shall confer on the holders thereof no further right to participate in the assets of the Company;
the deferred shares do not entitle the holder thereof to receive notice of, or to attend, speak or vote at any general meeting, or be part of the quorum thereof as the holders of the deferred shares; and
the Company shall have irrevocable authority from each holder of deferred shares to either (i) appoint any person to execute on behalf of any holder of deferred shares a transfer of all or any of those shares and/or an agreement to transfer the same (without making any payment for them) to such person or persons as the Company may determine and to execute any other documents which such person may consider necessary or desirable to effect such transfer, in each case without obtaining the sanction of the holder(s) and without any payment being made in respect of such acquisition; and (ii) to purchase all or any of the deferred shares without obtaining the consent of the holders of those shares in consideration for an amount not exceeding £1.00 in respect of all the deferred shares then being purchased.
Non-Voting Ordinary Shares
Our articles of association provide for any non-voting ordinary shares to have the same rights and restrictions as the ordinary shares and otherwise rank pari passu in all respects with the ordinary shares save as follows:
a holder of non-voting ordinary shares shall, in relation to the non-voting ordinary shares held by him or her, have no right to receive notice of, or to attend or vote at, any general meeting of shareholders save in relation to a variation of class rights of the non-voting ordinary shares;
the non-voting ordinary shares shall be re-designated as ordinary shares by our board of directors, or a duly authorized committee or representative thereof, upon receipt of a re-designation notice and otherwise subject to the terms and conditions set out therein. A holder of non-voting ordinary shares shall not be entitled to have any non-voting ordinary shares re-designated as ordinary shares where such re-designation would result in such holder thereof beneficially owning (for purposes of section 13(d) of the Exchange Act), when aggregated with “affiliates” and “group” members with whom such holder is required to aggregate beneficial ownership for purposes of section 13(d) of the Exchange Act, in excess of 9.99 per cent. of any class of securities of the Company registered under the Exchange Act (which percentage may be increased or decreased on a holder-by-holder basis subject to the provisions set out therein); and
the non-voting ordinary shares shall be re-designated as ordinary shares automatically upon transfer of a non-voting ordinary share by its holder to any person that is not an “affiliate” or “group member” with whom such holder is required to aggregate beneficial ownership for purposes of section 13(d) of the Exchange Act. This automatic re-designation shall only be in respect of the non-voting ordinary shares that are subject to such transfer.
Options
As of December 31, 2021, there were options to purchase 9,198,460 ordinary shares outstanding with a weighted-average exercise price of $22.31 per share.
Register of Members
We are required by the Companies Act to keep a register of our shareholders. Under the laws of England and Wales, the ordinary shares are deemed to be issued when the name of the shareholder is entered in our register of members. The register of members therefore is prima facie evidence of the identity of our shareholders, and the shares that they hold. The register of members generally provides limited, or no, information regarding the ultimate beneficial owners of our ordinary shares. Our register of members is maintained by our registrar, Computershare Investor Services plc.
Holders of our ADSs will not be treated as one of our shareholders and their names will therefore not be entered in our register of members. The depositary, the custodian or their nominees will be the holder of the ordinary
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shares underlying our ADSs. Holders of our ADSs have a right to receive the ordinary shares underlying their ADSs. For discussion on our ADSs and ADS holder rights, see the section titled “Description of American Depositary Shares” in this prospectus.
Under the Companies Act, we must enter an allotment of shares in our register of members as soon as practicable and in any event within two months of the allotment. We will perform all procedures necessary to update the register of members to reflect the ordinary shares being sold in this offering, including updating the share register with the number of ordinary shares to be issued to the depositary upon the closing of this offering. We also are required by the Companies Act to register a transfer of shares (or give the transferee notice of and reasons for refusal) as soon as practicable and in any event within two months of receiving notice of the transfer.
We, any of our shareholders or any other affected person, may apply to the court for rectification of the register of members if:
the name of any person, without sufficient cause, is wrongly entered in or omitted from our register of members; or
there is a default or unnecessary delay in entering on the register the fact of any person having ceased to be a member or on which we have a lien, provided that such refusal does not prevent dealings in the shares taking place on an open and proper basis.
Registration Rights
We and the holders of certain of our ordinary shares are parties to a registration rights agreement that provides the following registration rights:
Demand Registration on Form F-1 - each holder is entitled to demand registration on Form F-1, provided that these demand registration rights may only be exercised by holders who hold, in the aggregate, not less than 30% of the aggregate number of shares held, immediately prior to the completion of our initial public offering, by all holders who are party to the agreement. These demand registration rights may not be exercised more than twice.
Demand Registration on Form F-3 - each holder is entitled to demand registration on Form F-3, if we are eligible to register shares on Form F-3, provided that these demand registration rights may only be exercised by holders who hold, in the aggregate, not less than 20% of the aggregate number of shares held, immediately prior to the completion of our initial public offering, by all holders who are party to the agreement. These demand registration rights may not be exercised more than twice in any calendar year.
Piggyback Registration - each holder is entitled to piggyback registration rights, subject, in the case of an underwritten offering, to customary reductions by the underwriter.
Expenses - we will pay all registration expenses relating to the exercise of the registration rights above, including the reasonable fees and expenses of one legal counsel to the participating holders up to a maximum of $50,000 in the aggregate.
Preemptive Rights
The laws of England and Wales generally provide shareholders with preemptive rights when new shares are issued for cash; however, it is possible for the articles of association, or shareholders at a general meeting representing at least 75% of our ordinary shares present (in person or by proxy) and voting at that general meeting, to disapply these preemptive rights. Such a disapplication of preemptive rights may be for a maximum period of up to five years from the date of adoption of the articles of association, if the disapplication is contained in the articles of association, or from the date of the shareholder resolution, if the disapplication is by shareholder resolution. In either case, this disapplication would need to be renewed by our shareholders upon its expiration (i.e., at least every five years) to be effective.
On February 3, 2021, our shareholders approved the disapplication of preemptive rights for a period of five years from the date of approval in relation to the shares authorized to be allotted pursuant to such resolution, which disapplication will need to be renewed upon expiration (i.e., at least every five years) to remain effective, but may be sought more frequently for additional five-year terms (or any shorter period).
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Key Provisions of Our Articles of Association
The following is a summary of certain key provisions of our articles of association. Please note that this is only a summary and is not intended to be exhaustive.
The articles of association contain, among other things, provisions to the following effect:
Objects
The objects of the Company are unrestricted.
Share Rights
Subject to the Companies Act and any rights attaching to shares already in issue, our shares may be issued with or have attached to them any rights and restrictions as we may by ordinary resolution of the shareholders determine or, in the absence of any such determination, as our board of directors may determine.
Voting Rights
Subject to any rights or restrictions attached to any shares from time to time, the general voting rights attaching to shares are as follows:
any resolution put to the vote of a general meeting must be decided exclusively on a poll; on a poll, every shareholder who is present in person or by proxy or corporate representative shall have one vote for each share of which they are the holder. A shareholder entitled to more than one vote need not, if they vote, use all their votes or cast all the votes in the same way; and
if two or more persons are joint holders of a share, then in voting on any question the vote of the senior who tenders a vote, whether in person or by proxy, shall be accepted to the exclusion of the votes of the other joint holders. For this purpose seniority shall be determined by the order in which the names of the holders stand in the share register.
Restrictions on Voting
No shareholder shall be entitled to vote at any general meeting or at any separate class meeting in respect of any share held by him unless all calls or other sums payable by him in respect of that share have been paid.
The board may from time to time make calls upon the shareholders in respect of any money unpaid on their shares and each shareholder shall (subject to at least 14 clear days’ notice specifying the time or times and place of payment) pay at the time or times so specified the amount called on their shares.
Dividends
We may, subject to the provisions of the Companies Act and the articles of association, by ordinary resolution of shareholders declare dividends out of profits available for distribution in accordance with the respective rights of shareholders, but no such dividend shall exceed the amount recommended by the board of directors.
The board of directors may from time to time pay shareholders such interim dividends as appears to the board to be justified by the profits available for distribution (including any dividends at a fixed rate). If the share capital is divided into different classes, the board of directors may pay interim dividends on shares which confer deferred or non-preferred rights with regard to dividend as well as on shares which confer preferential rights with regard to dividend, but no interim dividend shall be paid on shares carrying deferred or non-preferred rights if, at the time of payment, any preferential dividend is in arrears.
The board of directors may deduct from any dividend or other money payable to any person on or in respect of a share all such sums as may be due from such shareholder to us on account of calls or otherwise in relation to our shares. Sums so deducted can be used to pay amounts owing to us in respect of the shares.
Subject to any special rights attaching to or the terms of issue of any share, no dividend or other moneys payable by us on or in respect of any share shall bear interest against us. Any dividend unclaimed after a period of 12 years from the date such dividend became due for payment shall be forfeited and shall revert to us.
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Dividends may be declared or paid in any currency and the board may decide the rate of exchange for any currency conversions that may be required, and how any costs involved are to be met.
The board of directors may, by ordinary resolution, direct (or in the case of an interim dividend may without the authority of an ordinary resolution direct) that payment of any dividend declared may be satisfied wholly or partly by the distribution of assets, and in particular of paid up shares or debentures of any other company, or in any one or more of such ways.
Change of Control
There is no specific provision in our articles of association that would have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change of control.
Distributions on Winding Up
On a winding up, the liquidator may, with the sanction of a special resolution of shareholders and any other sanction required by law, divide amongst the shareholders in specie the whole or any part of our assets and may, for that purpose, value any assets and determine how the division shall be carried out as between the shareholders or different classes of shareholders. The liquidator may, with the like sanction, vest the whole or any part of the assets in trustees upon such trusts for the benefit of the shareholders as he may with the like sanction determine, but no shareholder shall be compelled to accept any assets upon which there is a liability.
Variation of Rights
All or any of the rights and restrictions attached to any class of shares issued may be varied or abrogated with the consent in writing of the holders of not less than three-fourths in nominal value of the issued shares of that class (excluding any shares held as treasury shares) or by special resolution passed at a separate general meeting of the holders of such shares, subject to the Companies Act and the terms of their issue. The Companies Act provides a right to object to the variation of the share capital by the shareholders who did not vote in favor of the variation. Should an aggregate of not less than 15% of the shareholders of the issued shares in question apply to the court to have the variation cancelled, the variation shall have no effect unless and until it is confirmed by the court.
Alteration to Share Capital
We may, by ordinary resolution of shareholders, consolidate all or any of our share capital into shares of larger amount than our existing shares, or sub-divide our shares or any of them into shares of a smaller amount. We may, by special resolution of shareholders, confirmed by the court, reduce our share capital or any capital redemption reserve or any share premium account in any manner authorized by the Companies Act. We may redeem or purchase all or any of our shares as described in “—Other English Law Considerations—Purchase of Own Shares.” Our articles of association provide for non-voting ordinary shares to be re-designated as ordinary shares in certain circumstances as set out under “Non-Voting Ordinary Shares” above.
Allotment of Shares and Preemption Rights
Subject to the Companies Act and to any rights attached to existing shares, any share may be issued with or have attached to it such rights and restrictions as we may by ordinary resolution determine, or if no ordinary resolution has been passed or so far as the resolution does not make specific provision, as our board of directors may determine (including shares which are to be redeemed, or are liable to be redeemed at our option or the holder of such shares).
In accordance with the Companies Act, the board of directors may be generally and unconditionally authorized to exercise for each prescribed period of up to five years all the powers of the Company to allot shares or grant rights to subscribe for or to convert any security into shares up to an aggregate nominal amount equal to the amount stated in the relevant ordinary resolution authorizing such allotment.
On February 3, 2021, our shareholders approved a resolution authorizing the board of directors pursuant to Section 551 of the Companies Act to allot new shares or to grant rights to subscribe for or to convert any security into shares in the company up to a maximum aggregate nominal amount of £150,000. This authority runs for five years and will expire on February 3, 2026.
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On February 3, 2021, our shareholders also approved the disapplication of preemptive rights for a period of five years from the date of approval in relation to the shares authorized to be allotted pursuant to such resolution, which disapplication will need to be renewed upon expiration (i.e., at least every five years) to remain effective, but may be sought more frequently for additional five-year terms (or any shorter period).
In certain circumstances, our shareholders may have statutory preemptive rights under the Companies Act in respect of the allotment of new shares as described in “—Preemptive Rights” and “—Differences in Corporate Law—Preemptive rights” in this prospectus.
Transfer of Shares
Any shareholder holding shares in certificated form may transfer all or any of his shares by an instrument of transfer in any usual or common form or in any other manner which is permitted by the Companies Act and approved by the board. Any written instrument of transfer shall be signed by or on behalf of the transferor and (in the case of a share which is not fully paid up) the transferee.
All transfers of uncertificated shares shall be made in accordance with and subject to the provisions of the Uncertificated Securities Regulations 2001 and the facilities and requirements of its relevant system. The Uncertificated Securities Regulations 2001 permit shares to be issued and held in uncertificated form and transferred by means of a computer-based system.
The board of directors may, in its absolute discretion, decline to register any transfer of any share in certificated form unless:
it is for a share which is fully paid up;
it is for a share upon which we have no lien;
it is only for one class of share;
it is in favor of a single transferee or no more than four joint transferees;
it is duly stamped or is duly certificated or otherwise shown to the satisfaction of the board to be exempt from stamp duty (if this is required); and
it is delivered for registration to our registered office (or such other place as the board may determine), accompanied (except in the case of a transfer by a person to whom we are not required by law to issue a certificate and to whom a certificate has not been issued or in the case of a renunciation) by the certificate for the shares to which it relates and such other evidence as the board may reasonably require to prove the title of the transferor (or person renouncing) and the due execution of the transfer or renunciation by him or, if the transfer or renunciation is executed by some other person on his behalf, the authority of that person to do so.
The board of directors may decline to register a transfer of uncertificated shares in any circumstances that are allowed or required by the Uncertificated Securities Regulations 2001 and the requirements of its relevant system.
If the board of directors declines to register a transfer it shall, as soon as practicable and in any event within two months after the date on which the transfer is lodged, send to the transferee notice of the refusal, together with reasons for the refusal or, in the case of uncertified shares, notify such persons as may be required by the Uncertified Securities Regulations 2001 and the requirements of the relevant system concerned.
Annual General Meetings
In accordance with the Companies Act, we are required in each year to hold an annual general meeting in addition to any other general meetings in that year and to specify the meeting as such in the notice convening it. The annual general meeting shall be convened whenever and wherever the board sees fit, subject to the requirements of the Companies Act, as described in “—Differences in Corporate Law—Annual General Meeting” and “—Differences in Corporate Law—Notice of General Meetings” in this prospectus.
Notice of General Meetings
The arrangements for the calling of general meetings are described in “—Differences in Corporate Law—Notice of General Meetings” in this prospectus.
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Quorum of General Meetings
No business shall be transacted at any general meeting unless a quorum is present. At least two shareholders present in person or by proxy and entitled to vote shall be a quorum for all purposes.
Class Meetings
The provisions in our articles of association relating to general meetings apply to every separate general meeting of the holders of a class of shares except that:
the quorum for such class meeting shall be two holders in person or by proxy representing not less than one-third in nominal value of the issued shares of the class (excluding any shares held in treasury); and
if at any adjourned meeting of such holders a quorum is not present at the meeting, one holder of shares of the class present in person or by proxy at an adjourned meeting constitutes a quorum.
Number of Directors
We may not have less than two directors or more than fifteen directors on the board of directors. We may, by ordinary resolution of the shareholders, vary the minimum and/or maximum number of directors from time to time.
Appointment of Directors, Classification and Reappointment of Directors
Subject to our articles of association and the Companies Act, we may by ordinary resolution appoint a person who is willing to act as a director and the board of directors shall have power at any time to appoint any person who is willing to act as a director, in both cases either to fill a vacancy or as an addition to the existing board of directors, provided the total number of directors shall not exceed the maximum number of fifteen.
Our articles of association provide that our board of directors are divided into three classes, each of which will consist, as nearly as possible, of one-third of the total number of directors constituting our entire board and which will serve staggered three-year terms. At each annual general meeting, the successors to directors whose terms then expire are elected to serve from the time of election and qualification until the third annual general meeting following election. Directors of the class retiring at the annual general meeting shall be eligible for re-appointment by ordinary resolution at such annual general meeting.
At every subsequent annual general meeting, any director who has been appointed by the board of directors since the last annual general meeting, must retire from office and may offer themselves for reappointment by the shareholders by ordinary resolution.
Directors’ Interests
The directors may authorize, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any matter or situation proposed to them which would otherwise result in a director infringing his duty to avoid a situation in which he has, or can have, a direct or indirect interest that conflicts, or possibly may conflict, with our interests. A director shall not, save as otherwise agreed by him, be accountable to us for any remuneration, profit or other benefit which he derives from any matter authorized by the directors or by the shareholders in general meeting and no contract shall be liable to be avoided on any such grounds.
Subject to the requirements under sections 175, 177 and 182 of the Companies Act, a director who is any way, whether directly or indirectly, interested in a proposed or existing transaction or arrangement with us shall declare the nature of his interest at a meeting of the directors.
A director shall not vote in respect of any transactions or, arrangement with the Company in which he has an interest and which may reasonably be regarded as likely to give rise to a conflict of interest. A director shall not be counted in the quorum at a meeting in relation to any resolution on which he is debarred from voting.
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A director shall be entitled to vote (and be counted in the quorum) in respect of any resolution concerning any of the following matters:
the giving of any guarantee, security or indemnity in respect of money lent or obligations incurred by him or by any other person at the request of or for the benefit of our company or any of our subsidiary undertakings;
the giving of any guarantee, security or indemnity in respect of a debt or obligation of our company or any of our subsidiary undertakings for which he himself has assumed responsibility in whole or in part under a guarantee or indemnity or by the giving of security;
any proposal or contract relating to an offer of securities of or by our company or any of our subsidiary undertakings in which offer he is or may be entitled to participate as a holder of securities or in the underwriting or sub-underwriting of which he is to participate;
any arrangement involving any other company if the director (together with any person connected with him) has an interest of any kind in that company (including an interest by holding any position in that company or by being a member of that company), unless he is to his knowledge (either directly or indirectly) the holder of or beneficially interested in one per cent or more of any class of the equity share capital of that company (calculated exclusive of any shares of that class in that company held as treasury shares) or of the voting rights available to members of that company;
any arrangement for the benefit of employees of our company or any of our subsidiary undertakings which only gives him benefits which are also generally given to employees to whom the arrangement relates;
any contract relating to insurance which our company is to buy or renew for the benefit of the directors or a group of people which includes directors; and
a contract relating to a pension, superannuation or similar scheme or a retirement, death, disability benefits scheme or employees’ share scheme which gives the director benefits which are also generally given to the employees to whom the scheme relates.
If a question arises at a meeting of the board or of a committee of the board as to the right of a director to vote or be counted in the quorum, and such question is not resolved by his voluntarily agreeing to abstain from voting or not to be counted in the quorum, the question shall be determined by the Chairman and his ruling in relation to any director other than himself shall be final and conclusive except in a case where the nature or extent of the interest of the director concerned has not been fairly disclosed. If the question arises about the Chairman, the question must be directed to the directors. The Chairman cannot vote on the question but can be counted in the quorum. The directors’ resolution about the chairman is final and conclusive, unless the nature and extent of the Chairman’s interests have not been fairly disclosed to the directors.
Directors’ Fees and Remuneration
Each of the directors shall be paid a fee at such rate as may from time to time be determined by the board (or for the avoidance of doubt any duly authorized committee of the board) provided that the aggregate of all such fees so paid to directors shall not exceed $2,500,000 per annum, or such higher amount as may from time to time be determined by ordinary resolution of the shareholders.
Each director may be paid his reasonable traveling, hotel and other expenses of attending and returning from meetings of the board or committees of the board or general meetings or separate meetings of the holders of any class of shares or of debentures and shall be paid all expenses properly incurred by him in the conduct of the Company’s business.
Any director who is appointed to any executive office or who serves on any committee or who devotes special attention to the business of our company, or who otherwise performs services which in the opinion of the directors are outside the scope of the ordinary duties of a director, may be paid such extra remuneration by way of salary, commissions, participation in profits or otherwise as the directors may determine.
Borrowing Powers
The board of directors may exercise all the powers to borrow money, provide any indemnity or guarantee, and to mortgage or charge our undertaking, property and assets (present or future) and uncalled capital or any part
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thereof, to create and issue debentures and other securities and to give security, whether outright or as collateral security for any debt, liability or obligation of us or of any third party.
Indemnity
Every director or other office of our group may be indemnified against all costs, charges, expenses, losses and liabilities sustained or incurred by them in connection with that director’s or officer’s duties or powers in relation to the Company or other members of our group. See also “Indemnification of directors and officers” in Part II below.
Other Relevant English Law Considerations
Mandatory Bid
We believe that, at the date of this prospectus, our place of central management and control is not in the United Kingdom (or the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man) for the purposes of the jurisdictional criteria of the Takeover Code. Accordingly, we believe that we are currently not subject to the Takeover Code and, as a result, our shareholders are not currently entitled to benefit from certain takeover offer protections provided under the Takeover Code, including the rules regarding mandatory takeover bids (a summary of which is set out below). In the event that this changes, or if the interpretation or application of the Takeover Code by the Takeover Panel changes (including changes to the way in which the Takeover Panel assesses the application of the Takeover Code to English companies whose shares are listed outside the United Kingdom), the Takeover Code may apply to us in the future.
Under the Takeover Code, where:
any person, together with persons acting in concert with him, acquires, whether by a series of transactions over a period of time or not, an interest in shares which (taken together with shares in which he is already interested, and in which persons acting in concert with him are interested) carry 30% or more of the voting rights of a company; or
any person who, together with persons acting in concert with him, is interested in shares which in the aggregate carry not less than 30% of the voting rights of a company but does not hold shares carrying more than 50% of such voting rights and such person, or any person acting in concert with him, acquires an interest in any other shares which increases the percentage of shares carrying voting rights in which he is interested,
such person shall, except in limited circumstances, be obliged to extend offers, on the basis set out in Rules 9.3 and 9.5 of the Takeover Code, to the holders of any class of equity share capital, whether voting or non-voting, and also to the holders of any other class of transferable securities carrying voting rights. Offers for different classes of equity share capital must be comparable; the Takeover Panel should be consulted in advance in such cases.
An offer under Rule 9 of the Takeover Code must be in cash or be accompanied by a cash alternative at not less than the highest price paid for any interest in the shares by the person required to make an offer or any person acting in concert with him during the 12 months prior to the announcement of the offer.
Under the Takeover Code, a “concert party” arises where persons acting together pursuant to an agreement or understanding (whether formal or informal and whether or not in writing) actively cooperate, through the acquisition by them of an interest in shares in a company, to obtain or consolidate control of the company. “Control” means holding, or aggregate holdings, of an interest in shares carrying 30% or more of the voting rights of the company, irrespective of whether the holding or holdings give de facto control.
Mandatory Purchases and Acquisitions
Pursuant to Sections 979 to 991 of the Companies Act, where a takeover offer has been made for us and the offeror has acquired or unconditionally contracted to acquire not less than 90% in value of the shares to which the offer relates and not less than 90% of the voting rights carried by those shares, the offeror may give notice to the holder of any shares to which the offer relates which the offeror has not acquired or unconditionally contracted to acquire that he wishes to acquire, and is entitled to so acquire, those shares on the same terms as the general offer. The offeror would do so by sending a notice to the outstanding minority shareholders telling them that it will compulsorily acquire their shares.
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Such notice must be sent within three months of the last day on which the offer can be accepted in the prescribed manner or if earlier, and the offer is not one to which section 943(1) of the Companies Act 2006 applies, within the period of six months beginning with the date of the offer. The squeeze out of the minority shareholders can be completed at the end of six weeks from the date the notice has been given, subject to the minority shareholders failing to successfully lodge an application to the court to prevent such squeeze out any time prior to the end of those six weeks following which the offeror can execute a transfer of the outstanding shares in its favor and pay the consideration to us, which would hold the consideration on trust for the outstanding minority shareholders. The consideration offered to the outstanding minority shareholders whose shares are compulsorily acquired under the Companies Act must, in general, be the same as the consideration that was available under the takeover offer.
Sell Out
The Companies Act also gives our minority shareholders a right to be bought out in certain circumstances by an offeror who has made a takeover offer for all of our shares. The holder of shares to which the offer relates, and who has not otherwise accepted the offer, may require the offeror to acquire his shares if, prior to the expiry of the acceptance period for such offer, (1) the offeror has acquired or unconditionally agreed to acquire not less than 90% in value of the voting shares, and (2) not less than 90% of the voting rights carried by those shares. The offeror may impose a time limit on the rights of minority shareholders to be bought out that is not less than three months after the end of the acceptance period. If a shareholder exercises his rights to be bought out, the offeror is required to acquire those shares on the terms of this offer or on such other terms as may be agreed.
Disclosure of Interest in Shares
Pursuant to Part 22 of the Companies Act and our articles of association, we are empowered by notice in writing to any person whom we know or have reasonable cause to believe to be interested in our shares, or at any time during the three years immediately preceding the date on which the notice is issued has been so interested, within a reasonable time to disclose to us particulars of that person’s interest and (so far as is within his knowledge) particulars of any other interest that subsists or subsisted in those shares.
Under our articles of association, if a person defaults in supplying us with the required particulars in relation to the shares in question, or default shares, within the prescribed period, the directors may by notice direct that:
in respect of the default shares, the relevant shareholder shall not be entitled to vote (either in person or by representative or proxy) at any general meeting or to exercise any other right conferred by a shareholding in relation to general meetings; and
where the default shares represent at least 0.25% in nominal value of the issued shares of their class, (a) any dividend or other money payable in respect of the default shares shall be retained by us without liability to pay interest and/or (b) no transfers by the relevant shareholder of any default shares may be registered (unless the shareholder himself is not in default and the shareholder provides a certificate, in a form satisfactory to the directors, to the effect that after due and careful enquiry the shareholder is satisfied that none of the shares to be transferred are default shares).
Purchase of Own Shares
Under the laws of England and Wales, a limited company may only purchase its own shares out of the distributable profits of the Company or the proceeds of a fresh issue of shares made for the purpose of financing the purchase, subject to complying with procedural requirements under the Companies Act and provided that they are not restricted from doing so by their articles of association. A limited company may not purchase its own shares if, as a result of the purchase, there would no longer be any issued shares of the Company other than redeemable shares or shares held as treasury shares. Shares must be fully paid in order to be repurchased.
Any such purchase will be either a “market purchase” or “off market purchase,” each as defined in the Companies Act. A “market purchase” is a purchase made on a “recognized investment exchange” (other than an overseas exchange) as defined in the U.K. Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, as amended, or FSMA. An “off market purchase” is a purchase that is not made on a “recognized investment exchange.” Both “market purchases” and “off market purchases” require prior shareholder approval by way of an ordinary resolution. In the case of an “off market purchase,” a company’s shareholders, other than the shareholders from whom the
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company is purchasing shares, must approve the terms of the contract to purchase shares and in the case of a “market purchase,” the shareholders must approve the maximum number of shares that can be purchased and the maximum and minimum prices to be paid by the company. Both resolutions authorizing “market purchases” and “off-market purchases” must specify a date, not later than five years after the passing of the resolution, on which the authority to purchase is to expire.
A share buy-back by a company of its shares will give rise to U.K. stamp duty reserve tax and stamp duty at the rate of 0.5% of the amount or value of the consideration payable by the company (rounded up to the next £5.00), and such stamp duty reserve tax or stamp duty will be paid by the company. The charge to stamp duty reserve tax will be cancelled or, if already paid, repaid (generally with interest), where a transfer instrument for stamp duty purposes has been duly stamped within six years of the charge arising (either by paying the stamp duty or by claiming an appropriate relief) or if the instrument is otherwise exempt from stamp duty.
Nasdaq is an “overseas exchange” for the purposes of the Companies Act and does not fall within the definition of a “recognized investment exchange” for the purposes of FSMA and any purchase made by us would need to comply with the procedural requirements under the Companies Act that regulate “off market purchases.”
On January 26, 2021, our shareholders (other than the Gates Foundation) approved the form of a share buy-back contract in respect of a proposed “off market purchase” by us of certain shares in our share capital held by the Gates Foundation, with such contract to be entered into by us and the Gates Foundation on a future date. This is to enable us to comply with our obligations in the event we are required to repurchase for cash all of the Gates Foundation’s shares pursuant to our amended global access commitments agreement with the Gates Foundation.
Distributions and Dividends
Under the Companies Act, before a company can lawfully make a distribution or dividend, it must ensure that it has sufficient distributable reserves (on a non-consolidated basis). The basic rule is that a company’s profits available for the purpose of making a distribution are its accumulated, realized profits, so far as not previously utilized by distribution or capitalization, less its accumulated, realized losses, so far as not previously written off in a reduction or reorganization of capital duly made. The requirement to have sufficient distributable reserves before a distribution or dividend can be paid applies to us and to each of our subsidiaries that has been incorporated under the laws of England and Wales.
It is not sufficient that we, as a public company, have made a distributable profit for the purpose of making a distribution. An additional capital maintenance requirement is imposed on us to ensure that the net worth of the Company is at least equal to the amount of its capital. A public company can only make a distribution:
if, at the time that the distribution is made, the amount of its net assets (that is, the total excess of assets over liabilities) is not less than the total of its called up share capital and undistributable reserves; and
if, and to the extent that, the distribution itself, at the time that it is made, does not reduce the amount of the net assets to less than that total.
Shareholder Rights
Certain rights granted under the Companies Act, including the right to requisition a general meeting or require a resolution to be put to shareholders at the annual general meeting, are only available to our shareholders. For English law purposes, our shareholders are the persons who are registered as the owners of the legal title to the shares and whose names are recorded in our share register. If a person who holds their ADSs in DTC wishes to exercise certain of the rights granted under the Companies Act, they may be required to first take steps to withdraw their ADSs from the settlement system operated by DTC and become the registered holder of the shares in our share register. A withdrawal of shares from DTC may have tax implications.
Exchange Controls
There are no governmental laws, decrees, regulations or other legislation in the United Kingdom that may affect the import or export of capital, including the availability of cash and cash equivalents for use by us, or that may affect the remittance of dividends, interest, or other payments by us to non-resident holders of our ordinary shares or ADSs representing our ordinary shares, other than withholding tax requirements. There is no limitation imposed by the laws of England and Wales or in the articles of association on the right of non-residents to hold or vote shares.
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Differences in Corporate Law
The applicable provisions of the Companies Act differ from laws applicable to U.S. corporations and their shareholders. Set forth below is a summary of certain differences between the provisions of the Companies Act applicable to us and the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware relating to shareholders’ rights and protections. This summary is not intended to be a complete discussion of the respective rights and it is qualified in its entirety by reference to Delaware law and the laws of England and Wales.
 
ENGLAND & WALES
DELAWARE
Number of Directors
Under the Companies Act, a public limited company must have at least two directors and the number of directors may be fixed by or in the manner provided in a company’s articles of association.
Under Delaware law, a corporation must have at least one director and the number of directors shall be fixed by or in the manner provided in the bylaws.
 
 
 
Removal of Directors
Under the Companies Act, shareholders may remove a director without cause by an ordinary resolution (which is passed by a simple majority of those voting in person or by proxy at a general meeting) irrespective of any provisions of any service contract the director has with the Company, provided 28 clear days’ notice of the resolution has been given to the Company and its shareholders. On receipt of notice of an intended resolution to remove a director, the Company must forthwith send a copy of the notice to the director concerned. Certain other procedural requirements under the. Companies Act must also be followed such as allowing the director to make representations against his or her removal either at the meeting or in writing.
Under Delaware law, any director or the entire board of directors may be removed, with or without cause, by the holders of a majority of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors, except (a) unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise, in the case of a corporation whose board of directors is classified, shareholders may effect such removal only for cause, or (b) in the case of a corporation having cumulative voting, if less than the entire board of directors is to be removed, no director may be removed without cause if the votes cast against his removal would be sufficient to elect him if then cumulatively voted at an election of the entire board of directors, or, if there are classes of directors, at an election of the class of directors of which he is a part.
 
 
 
Vacancies on the Board of Directors
Under the laws of England and Wales, the procedure by which directors, other than a company’s initial directors, are appointed is generally set out in a company’s articles of association, provided that where two or more persons are appointed as directors of a public limited company by resolution of the shareholders, resolutions appointing each director must be voted on individually.
Under Delaware law, vacancies and newly created directorships may be filled by a majority of the directors then in office (even though less than a quorum) or by a sole remaining director unless (a) otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or by-laws of the corporation or (b) the certificate of incorporation directs that a particular class of stock is to elect such director, in which case a majority of the other directors elected by such class, or a sole remaining director elected.
 
 
 
Annual General Meeting
Under the Companies Act, a public limited company must hold an annual general meeting in each six-month period following its annual accounting reference date.
Under Delaware law, the annual meeting of stockholders shall be held at such place, on such date and at such time as may be designated from time to time by the board of directors or as provided in the certificate of incorporation or by the bylaws.
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ENGLAND & WALES
DELAWARE
General Meeting
Under the Companies Act, a general meeting of the shareholders of a public limited company may be called by the directors.
Under Delaware law, special meetings of the stockholders may be called by the board of directors or by such person or persons as may be authorized by the certificate of incorporation or by the bylaws.
 
 
 
 
Shareholders holding at least 5% of the paid-up capital of the Company carrying voting rights at general meetings (excluding any paid up capital held as treasury shares) can require the directors to call a general meeting and, if the directors fail to do so within a certain period, may themselves (or any of them representing more than one half of the total voting rights of all of them) convene a general meeting.
 
 
 
 
Notice of General Meetings
Subject to a company’s articles of association providing for a longer period, under the Companies Act, 21 clear days’ notice must be given for an annual general meeting and any resolutions to be proposed at the meeting. Subject to a company’s articles of association providing for a longer period, at least 14 clear days’ notice is required for any other general meeting. In addition, certain matters, such as the removal of directors or auditors, require special notice, which is 28 clear days’ notice. The shareholders of a company may in all cases consent to a shorter notice period, the proportion of shareholders’ consent required being 100% of those entitled to attend and vote in the case of an annual general meeting and, in the case of any other general meeting, a majority in number of the members having a right to attend and vote at the meeting, being a majority who together hold not less than 95% in nominal value of the shares giving a right to attend and vote at the meeting.
Under Delaware law, unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or bylaws, written notice of any meeting of the stockholders must be given to each stockholder entitled to vote at the meeting not less than 10 nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting and shall specify the place, date, hour, and purpose or purposes of the meeting.
 
 
 
Quorum
Subject to the provisions of a company’s articles of association, the Companies Act provides that two shareholders present at a meeting (in person, by proxy or authorized representative under the Companies Act) shall constitute a quorum for companies with more than one member.
The certificate of incorporation or bylaws may specify the number of shares, the holders of which shall be present or represented by proxy at any meeting in order to constitute a quorum, but in no event shall a quorum consist of less than one third of the shares entitled to vote at the meeting. In the absence of suchspecification in the certificate of
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ENGLAND & WALES
DELAWARE
 
 
incorporation or bylaws, a majority of the shares entitled to vote, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at a meeting of stockholders.
 
 
 
Proxy
Under the Companies Act, at any meeting of shareholders, a shareholder may designate another person to attend, speak and vote at the meeting on their behalf by proxy.
Under Delaware law, at any meeting of stockholders, a stockholder may designate another person to act for such stockholder by proxy, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. A director of a Delaware corporation may not issue a proxy representing the director’s voting rights as a director.
 
 
 
Preemptive Rights
Under the Companies Act, “equity securities,” being (1) shares in the Company other than shares that, with respect to dividends and capital, carry a right to participate only up to a specified amount in a distribution, referred to as “ordinary shares,” or (2) rights to subscribe for, or to convert securities into, ordinary shares, proposed to be allotted for cash must be offered first to the existing equity shareholders in the Company in proportion to the respective nominal value of their holdings, unless an exception applies or a special resolution to the contrary has been passed by shareholders in a general meeting or the articles of association provide otherwise in each case in accordance with the provisions of the Companies Act.
Under Delaware law, shareholders have no preemptive rights to subscribe to additional issues of stock or to any security convertible into such stock unless, and except to the extent that, such rights are expressly provided for in the certificate of incorporation.
 
 
 
Authority to Allot
Under the Companies Act, the directors of a company must not allot shares or grant of rights to subscribe for or to convert any security into shares unless an exception applies or an ordinary resolution to the contrary has been passed by shareholders in a general meeting or the articles of association provide otherwise in each case in accordance with the provisions of the Companies Act.
Under Delaware law, if the corporation’s charter or certificate of incorporation so provides, the board of directors has the power to authorize the issuance of stock. It may authorize capital stock to be issued for consideration consisting of cash, any tangible or intangible property or any benefit to the corporation or any combination thereof. It may determine the amount of such consideration by approving a formula. In the absence of actual fraud in the transaction, the judgment of the directors as to the value of such consideration is conclusive.
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ENGLAND & WALES
DELAWARE
Liability of Directors and Officers
Under the Companies Act, any provision, whether contained in a company’s articles of association or any contract or otherwise, that purports to exempt a director of a company, to any extent, from any liability that would otherwise attach to him in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the Company is void.

Any provision by which a company directly or indirectly provides an indemnity, to any extent, for a director of the Company or of an associated company against any liability attaching to him in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the Company of which he is a director is also void except as permitted by the Companies Act, which provides exceptions for the Company to (a) purchase and maintain insurance against such liability; (b) provide a “qualifying third party indemnity” (being an indemnity against liability incurred by the director to a person other than the Company or an associated company or criminal proceedings in which he is convicted); and (c) provide a “qualifying pension scheme indemnity” (being an indemnity against liability incurred in connection with our activities as trustee of an occupational pension plan).
Under Delaware law, a corporation’s certificate of incorporation may include a provision eliminating or limiting the personal liability of a director to the corporation and its stockholders for damages arising from a breach of fiduciary duty as a director. However, no provision can limit the liability of a director for:

• any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders

• acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

• intentional or negligent payment of unlawful dividends or stock purchases or redemptions; or

• any transaction from which the director derives an improper personal benefit.
 
 
 
Voting Rights
For a company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales, it is usual for the articles of association to provide that, unless a poll is demanded by the shareholders of a company or is required by the chairman of the meeting or our articles of association, shareholders shall vote on all resolutions on a show of hands. Under the Companies Act, a poll may be demanded by (a) not fewer than five shareholders having the right to vote on the resolution; (b) any shareholder(s) representing not less than 10% of the total voting rights of all the shareholders having the right to vote on the resolution (excluding any voting rights attaching to treasury shares); or (c) any shareholder(s) holding shares in the Company conferring a right to vote on the resolution
Delaware law provides that, unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, each stockholder is entitled to one vote for each share of capital stock held by such stockholder.
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ENGLAND & WALES
DELAWARE
 
(excluding any voting rights attaching to treasury shares) being shares on which an aggregate sum has been paid up equal to not less than 10% of the total sum paid up on all the shares conferring that right. A company’s articles of association may provide more extensive rights for shareholders to call a poll.
 
 
 
 
 
Under the laws of England and Wales, an ordinary resolution is passed on a show of hands if it is approved by a simple majority (more than 50%) of the votes cast by shareholders present (in person or by proxy) and entitled to vote. If a poll is demanded, an ordinary resolution is passed if it is approved by holders representing a simple majority of the total voting rights of shareholders present, in person or by proxy, who, being entitled to vote, vote on the resolution. Special resolutions require the affirmative vote of not less than 75% of the votes cast by shareholders present, in person or by proxy, at the meeting. If a poll is demanded, a special resolution is passed if it is approved by holders representing not less than 75% of the total voting rights of shareholders in person or by proxy who, being entitled to vote, vote on the resolution.
 
 
 
 
Shareholder Vote on Certain Transactions
The Companies Act provides for schemes of arrangement, which are arrangements or compromises between a company and any class of shareholders or creditors and used in certain types of reconstructions, amalgamations, capital reorganizations, or takeovers. These arrangements require:

• the approval at a shareholders’ or creditors’ meeting convened by order of the court, of a majority in number of shareholders or creditors or a class thereof representing 75% in value of the capital held by, or debt owed to, the class of shareholders or creditors, or class thereof present and voting, either in person or by proxy; and

• the approval of the court.
Generally, under Delaware law, unless the certificate of incorporation provides for the vote of a larger portion of the stock, completion of a merger, consolidation, sale, lease or exchange of all or substantially all of a corporation’s assets or dissolution requires:

• the approval of the board of directors; and

• the approval by the vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding stock or, if the certificate of incorporation provides for more or less than one vote per share, a majority of the votes of the outstanding stock of the corporation entitled to vote on the matter.
 
 
 
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ENGLAND & WALES
DELAWARE
Standard of Conduct for Directors
Under the laws of England and Wales, a director owes various statutory and fiduciary duties to the company, including:

• to act in the way he considers, in good faith, would be most likely to promote the success of the Company for the benefit of its members as a whole, and

in doing so have regard (amongst other matters) to: (i) the likely consequences of any decision in the long-term, (ii) the interests of the company’s employees, (iii) the need to foster the company’s business relationships with suppliers, customers and others, (iv) the impact of the company’s operations on the community and the environment, (v) the desirability to maintain a reputation for high standards of business conduct, and (vi) the need to act fairly as between members of the company;

• to avoid a situation in which he has, or can have, a direct or indirect interest that conflicts, or possibly conflicts, with the interests of the Company;

• to act in accordance with our constitution and only exercise his powers for the purposes for which they are conferred;

• to exercise independent judgment;

• to exercise reasonable care, skill and diligence;

• not to accept benefits from a third party conferred by reason of his being a director or doing, or not doing, anything as a director; and

• to declare any interest that he has, whether directly or indirectly, in a proposed or existing transaction or arrangement with the company.
Delaware law does not contain specific provisions setting forth the standard of conduct of a director. The scope of the fiduciary duties of directors is generally determined by the courts of the State of Delaware. In general, directors have a duty to act without self-interest, on a well-informed basis and in a manner they reasonably believe to be in the best interest of the stockholders.

Directors of a Delaware corporation owe fiduciary duties of care and loyalty to the corporation and to its shareholders. The duty of care generally requires that a director act in good faith, with the care that an ordinarily prudent person would exercise under similar circumstances. Under this duty, a director must inform himself of all material information reasonably available regarding a significant transaction. The duty of loyalty requires that a director act in a manner he reasonably believes to be in the best interests of the corporation. He must not use his corporate position for personal gain or advantage. In general, but subject to certain exceptions, actions of a director are presumed to have been made on an informed basis, in good faith and in the honest belief that the action taken was in the best interests of the corporation. However, this presumption may be rebutted by evidence of a breach of one of the fiduciary duties. Delaware courts have also imposed a heightened standard of conduct upon directors of a Delaware corporation who take any action designed to defeat a threatened change in control of the corporation.

In addition, under Delaware law, when the board of directors of a Delaware corporation approves the sale or break-up of a corporation, the board of directors may, in certain circumstances, have a duty to obtain the highest value reasonably available to the shareholders.
 
 
 
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ENGLAND & WALES
DELAWARE
Shareholder Litigation
Under the laws of England and Wales, generally, the Company, rather than its shareholders, is the proper claimant in an action in respect of a wrong done to the Company or where there is an irregularity in the Company’s internal management. Notwithstanding this general position, the Companies Act provides that (1) a court may allow a shareholder to bring a derivative claim (that is, an action in respect of and on behalf of the Company) in respect of a cause of action arising from a director’s negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust and (2) a shareholder may bring a claim for a court order where our affairs have been or are being conducted in a manner that is unfairly prejudicial to some of its shareholders.
Under Delaware law, a stockholder may initiate a derivative action to enforce a right of a corporation if the corporation fails to enforce the right itself. The complaint must:

• state that the plaintiff was a stockholder at the time of the transaction of which the plaintiff complains or that the plaintiff’s shares thereafter devolved on the plaintiff by operation of law; and

• allege with particularity the efforts made by the plaintiff to obtain the action the plaintiff desires from the directors and the reasons for the plaintiff’s failure to obtain the action; or

• state the reasons for not making the effort.

Additionally, the plaintiff must remain a stockholder through the duration of the derivative suit. The action will not be dismissed or compromised without the approval of the Delaware Court of Chancery.
Registrar of Shares; Depositary for ADSs
Our share register is maintained by Computershare Investor Services plc. The share register reflects only registered holders of our voting ordinary shares. Our voting ordinary shares and our non-voting ordinary shares are not listed for trading on any securities exchange and we do not plan to list our voting ordinary shares or the non-voting ordinary shares on any securities exchange.
Holders of ADSs representing our ordinary shares are not treated as our shareholders and their names will therefore not be entered in our share register. Citibank, N.A., acts as the depositary for the ADSs representing our ordinary shares and the custodian for ordinary shares represented by ADSs is Citibank, N.A., London Branch. Holders of ADSs representing our ordinary shares have a right to receive the ordinary shares underlying such ADSs. For discussion on ADSs representing our ordinary shares and rights of ADS holders, see the section titled “Description of American Depositary Shares.”
Nasdaq Global Select Market Listing
Our ADSs are listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the trading symbol “IMCR.”
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DESCRIPTION OF AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES
American Depositary Shares
Citibank, N.A., or Citibank, is the depositary for the ADSs representing our ordinary shares. Citibank’s depositary offices are located at 388 Greenwich Street, New York, New York 10013. ADSs represent ownership interests in securities that are on deposit with the depositary. ADSs may be represented by certificates that are commonly known as American Depositary Receipts, or ADRs. The depositary typically appoints a custodian to safekeep the securities on deposit. In this case, the custodian is Citibank, N.A., London Branch located at 25 Canada Square, Canary Wharf, London, E14 5LB, United Kingdom.
We have appointed Citibank as depositary pursuant to a deposit agreement. The form of the deposit agreement is on file with the SEC under cover of a registration statement on Form F-6. You may obtain a copy of the deposit agreement from the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549 and from the SEC’s website (www.sec.gov). Please refer to registration number 333-252487 when retrieving such copy.
We are providing you with a summary description of the material terms of the ADSs and of your material rights as an owner of ADSs. Please remember that summaries by their nature lack the precision of the information summarized and that the rights and obligations of an owner of ADSs will be determined by reference to the terms of the deposit agreement and not by this summary. We urge you to review the deposit agreement in its entirety. The portions of this summary description that are italicized describe matters that may be relevant to the ownership of ADSs but that may not be contained in the deposit agreement.
Each ADS represents the right to receive, and to exercise the beneficial ownership interests in, one ordinary share that is on deposit with the depositary or custodian. An ADS also represents the right to receive, and to exercise the beneficial interests in, any other property received by the depositary or the custodian on behalf of the owner of the ADS but that has not been distributed to the owners of ADSs because of legal restrictions or practical considerations. We and the depositary may agree to change the ADS-to-ordinary share ratio by amending the deposit agreement. This amendment may give rise to, or change, the depositary fees payable by ADS owners. The custodian, the depositary and their respective nominees will hold all deposited property for the benefit of the holders and beneficial owners of ADSs. The deposited property does not constitute the proprietary assets of the depositary, the custodian or their nominees. Beneficial ownership in the deposited property will under the terms of the deposit agreement be vested in the beneficial owners of the ADSs. The depositary, the custodian and their respective nominees will be the record holders of the deposited property represented by the ADSs for the benefit of the holders and beneficial owners of the corresponding ADSs. A beneficial owner of ADSs may or may not be the holder of ADSs. Beneficial owners of ADSs will be able to receive, and to exercise beneficial ownership interests in, the deposited property only through the registered holders of the ADSs, the registered holders of the ADSs (on behalf of the applicable ADS owners) only through the depositary, and the depositary (on behalf of the owners of the corresponding ADSs) directly, or indirectly, through the custodian or their respective nominees, in each case upon the terms of the deposit agreement.
If you become an owner of ADSs, you will become a party to the deposit agreement and therefore will be bound to its terms and to the terms of any ADR that represents your ADSs. The deposit agreement and the ADR specify our rights and obligations as well as your rights and obligations as owner of ADSs and those of the depositary. As an ADS holder you appoint the depositary to act on your behalf in certain circumstances. The deposit agreement and the ADRs and ADSs are governed by New York law. However, our obligations to the holders of ordinary shares will continue to be governed by the laws of England and Wales, which may be different from the laws in the United States.
In addition, applicable laws and regulations may require you to satisfy reporting requirements and obtain regulatory approvals in certain circumstances. You are solely responsible for complying with such reporting requirements and obtaining such approvals. None of the depositary, the custodian, us or any of their or our respective agents or affiliates shall be required to take any actions whatsoever on your behalf to satisfy such reporting requirements or obtain such regulatory approvals under applicable laws and regulations. You agree to comply with information requests from us pursuant to applicable laws, stock exchange rules and our articles of association. We may restrict transfers of ADSs and take other actions necessary to comply with any applicable ownership restrictions.
As an owner of ADSs, we will not treat you as one of our shareholders and you will not have direct shareholder rights. The depositary will hold on your behalf the shareholder rights attached to the ordinary shares underlying
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your ADSs. As an owner of ADSs you will be able to exercise the shareholders rights for the ordinary shares represented by your ADSs through the depositary only to the extent contemplated in the deposit agreement. To exercise any shareholder rights not contemplated in the deposit agreement you will, as an ADS owner, need to arrange for the cancellation of your ADSs and become a direct shareholder.
The manner in which you own the ADSs (e.g., in a brokerage account versus as a registered holder, or as a holder of certificated versus uncertificated ADSs) may affect your rights and obligations, and the manner in which, and extent to which, the depositary’s services are made available to you.
As an owner of ADSs, we will not treat you as one of our shareholders and you will not have direct shareholder rights. The depositary will hold on your behalf the shareholder rights attached to the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs. As an owner of ADSs, you will be able to exercise the shareholders rights for the ordinary shares represented by your ADSs through the depositary only to the extent contemplated in the deposit agreement. To exercise any shareholder rights not contemplated in the deposit agreement you will, as an ADS owner, need to arrange for the cancellation of your ADSs and become a direct shareholder.
As an owner of ADSs, you may hold your ADSs either by means of an ADR registered in your name, through a brokerage or safekeeping account, or through an account established by the depositary in your name reflecting the registration of uncertificated ADSs directly on the books of the depositary (commonly referred to as the direct registration system or DRS). The direct registration system reflects the uncertificated (book-entry) registration of ownership of ADSs by the depositary. Under the direct registration system, ownership of ADSs is evidenced by periodic statements issued by the depositary to the holders of the ADSs. The direct registration system includes automated transfers between the depositary and The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, the central book-entry clearing and settlement system for equity securities in the United States. If you decide to hold your ADSs through your brokerage or safekeeping account, you must rely on the procedures of your broker or bank to assert your rights as ADS owner. Banks and brokers typically hold securities such as the ADSs through clearing and settlement systems such as DTC. The procedures of such clearing and settlement systems may limit your ability to exercise your rights as an owner of ADSs. Please consult with your broker or bank if you have any questions concerning these limitations and procedures. All ADSs held through DTC will be registered in the name of a nominee of DTC, which nominee will be the only “holder” of such ADSs for purposes of the deposit agreement and any applicable ADR. This summary description assumes you have opted to own the ADSs directly by means of an ADS registered in your name and, as such, we will refer to you as the “holder.” When we refer to “you,” we assume the reader owns ADSs and will own ADSs at the relevant time.
The registration of the ordinary shares in the name of the depositary or the custodian shall, to the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, vest in the depositary or the custodian the record ownership in the applicable ordinary shares with the beneficial ownership rights and interests in such ordinary shares being at all times vested with the beneficial owners of the ADSs representing the ordinary shares. The depositary or the custodian shall at all times be entitled to exercise the beneficial ownership rights in all deposited property, in each case only on behalf of the holders and beneficial owners of the ADSs representing the deposited property.
Dividends and Other Distributions
As a holder of ADSs, you generally have the right to receive the distributions we make on the securities deposited with the custodian. Your receipt of these distributions may be limited, however, by practical considerations and legal limitations. Holders of ADSs will receive such distributions under the terms of the deposit agreement in proportion to the number of ADSs held as of the specified record date, after deduction the applicable fees, taxes and expenses.
Distributions of Cash
Whenever we make a cash distribution for the securities on deposit with the custodian, we will deposit the funds with the custodian. Upon receipt of confirmation of the deposit of the requisite funds, the depositary will arrange for the funds received in a currency other than U.S. dollars to be converted into U.S. dollars and for the distribution of the U.S. dollars to the holders, subject to the laws and regulations of England and Wales. The conversion into U.S. dollars will take place only if practicable and if the U.S. dollars are transferable to the United States. The depositary will apply the same method for distributing the proceeds of the sale of any property (such as undistributed rights) held by the custodian in respect of securities on deposit.
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The distribution of cash will be made net of the fees, expenses, taxes and governmental charges payable by holders under the terms of the deposit agreement. The depositary will hold any cash amounts it is unable to distribute in a non-interest bearing account for the benefit of the applicable holders and beneficial owners of ADSs until the distribution can be effected or the funds that the depositary holds must be escheated as unclaimed property in accordance with the laws of the relevant states of the United States.
Distributions of Shares
Whenever we make a free distribution of ordinary shares for the securities on deposit with the custodian, we will deposit the applicable number of ordinary shares with the custodian. Upon receipt of confirmation of such deposit, the depositary will either distribute to holders new ADSs representing the ordinary shares deposited or modify the ADS-to-ordinary shares ratio, in which case each ADS you hold will represent rights and interests in the additional ordinary shares so deposited. Only whole new ADSs will be distributed. Fractional entitlements will be sold and the proceeds of such sale will be distributed as in the case of a cash distribution.
The distribution of new ADSs or the modification of the ADS-to-ordinary shares ratio upon a distribution of ordinary shares will be made net of the fees, expenses, taxes and governmental charges payable by holders under the terms of the deposit agreement. In order to pay such taxes or governmental charges, the depositary may sell all or a portion of the new ordinary shares so distributed.
No such distribution of new ADSs will be made if it would violate a law (e.g., the U.S. securities laws) or if it is not operationally practicable. If the depositary does not distribute new ADSs as described above, it may sell the ordinary shares received upon the terms described in the deposit agreement and will distribute the proceeds of the sale as in the case of a distribution of cash.
Distributions of Rights
Whenever we intend to distribute rights to purchase additional ordinary shares, we will give prior notice to the depositary and we will assist the depositary in determining whether it is lawful and reasonably practicable to distribute rights to purchase additional ADSs to holders.
The depositary will establish procedures to distribute rights to purchase additional ADSs to holders and to enable such holders to exercise such rights if it is lawful and reasonably practicable to make the rights available to holders of ADSs, and if we provide all of the documentation contemplated in the deposit agreement (such as opinions to address the lawfulness of the transaction). You may have to pay fees, expenses, taxes and other governmental charges to subscribe for the new ADSs upon the exercise of your rights. The depositary is not obligated to establish procedures to facilitate the distribution and exercise by holders of rights to purchase new ordinary shares other represented by ADSs.
The depositary will not distribute the rights to you if:
we do not timely request that the rights be distributed to you or we request that the rights not be distributed to you; or
we fail to deliver satisfactory documents to the depositary; or
it is not reasonably practicable to distribute the rights.
The depositary will sell the rights that are not exercised or not distributed if such sale is lawful and reasonably practicable. The proceeds of such sale will be distributed to holders as in the case of a cash distribution. If the depositary is unable to sell the rights, it will allow the rights to lapse.
Elective Distributions
Whenever we intend to distribute a dividend payable at the election of shareholders either in cash or in additional ordinary shares, we will give prior notice thereof to the depositary and will indicate whether we wish the elective distribution to be made available to you. In such case, we will assist the depositary in determining whether such distribution is lawful and reasonably practicable.
The depositary will make the election available to you only if it is reasonably practicable and if we have provided all of the documentation contemplated in the deposit agreement. In such case, the depositary will establish procedures to enable you to elect to receive either cash or additional ADSs, in each case as described in the deposit agreement.
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If the election is not made available to you, you will receive either cash or additional ADSs, depending on what a shareholder in England and Wales would receive upon failing to make an election, as more fully described in the deposit agreement.
Other Distributions
Whenever we intend to distribute property other than cash, ordinary shares or rights to purchase additional ordinary shares, we will notify the depositary in advance and will indicate whether we wish such distribution to be made to you. If so, we will assist the depositary in determining whether such distribution to holders is lawful and reasonably practicable.
If it is reasonably practicable to distribute such property to you and if we provide all of the documentation contemplated in the deposit agreement, the depositary will distribute the property to the holders in a manner it deems practicable.
The distribution will be made net of fees, expenses, taxes and governmental charges payable by holders under the terms of the deposit agreement. In order to pay such taxes and governmental charges, the depositary may sell all or a portion of the property received.
The depositary will not distribute the property to you and will sell the property if:
we do not request that the property be distributed to you or if we ask that the property not be distributed to you; or
we do not deliver satisfactory documents to the depositary; or
the depositary determines that all or a portion of the distribution to you is not reasonably practicable.
The proceeds of such a sale will be distributed to holders as in the case of a cash distribution.
Redemption
Whenever we decide to redeem any of the securities on deposit with the custodian, we will notify the depositary in advance. If it is practicable and if we provide all of the documentation contemplated in the deposit agreement, the depositary will provide notice of the redemption to the holders.
The custodian will be instructed to surrender the ordinary shares being redeemed against payment of the applicable redemption price. The depositary will convert the redemption funds received into U.S. dollars upon the terms of the deposit agreement and will establish procedures to enable holders to receive the net proceeds from the redemption upon surrender of their ADSs to the depositary. You may have to pay fees, expenses, taxes and other governmental charges upon the redemption of your ADSs. If less than all ADSs are being redeemed, the ADSs to be retired will be selected by lot or on a pro rata basis, as the depositary may determine.
Changes Affecting Ordinary Shares
The ordinary shares held on deposit for your ADSs may change from time to time. For example, there may be a change in nominal value, sub-division, cancellation, consolidation or any other reclassification of such ordinary shares or a recapitalization, reorganization, merger, consolidation or sale of assets of our company.
If any such change were to occur, your ADSs would, to the extent permitted by law and the deposit agreement, represent the right to receive the property received or exchanged in respect of the ordinary shares held on deposit. The depositary may in such circumstances deliver new ADSs to you, amend the deposit agreement, the ADRs and the applicable registration statement(s) on Form F-6, call for the exchange of your existing ADSs for new ADSs and take any other actions that are appropriate to reflect as to the ADSs the change affecting the ordinary shares. If the depositary may not lawfully distribute such property to you, the depositary may sell such property and distribute the net proceeds to you as in the case of a cash distribution.
Issuance of ADSs upon Deposit of Ordinary Shares
After the completion of the offering, the ordinary shares being offered pursuant to this prospectus will be deposited by us with the custodian. Upon receipt of confirmation of such deposit, the depositary will issue ADSs to the underwriters named in this prospectus.
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After the completion of this offering, the depositary may also create ADSs on your behalf if you or your broker deposit ordinary shares with the custodian. The depositary will deliver these ADSs to the person you indicate only after you pay any applicable issuance fees and any charges and taxes payable for the transfer of the ordinary shares to the custodian and provide such documentation as may be required pursuant to the deposit agreement. Your ability to deposit ordinary shares and receive ADSs may be limited by legal considerations under the laws of the United States and England and Wales applicable at the time of deposit.
The issuance of ADSs may be delayed until the depositary or the custodian receives confirmation that all required approvals have been given and that the ordinary shares have been duly transferred to the custodian. The depositary will only issue ADSs in whole numbers.
When you make a deposit of ordinary shares, you will be responsible for transferring good and valid title to the depositary. As such, you will be deemed to represent and warrant that:
the ordinary shares are duly authorized, validly allotted and issued, fully paid, not subject to any call for the payment of further capital and legally obtained;
all preemptive (and similar) rights, if any, with respect to such ordinary shares have been validly waived, disapplied or exercised;
you are duly authorized to deposit the ordinary shares;
the ordinary shares presented for deposit are free and clear of any lien, encumbrance, security interest, charge, mortgage or adverse claim, and are not, and the ADSs issuable upon such deposit will not be, “restricted securities” (as defined in the deposit agreement); and
the ordinary shares presented for deposit have not been stripped of any rights or entitlements.
If any of the representations or warranties are incorrect in any way, we and the depositary may, at your cost and expense, take any and all actions necessary to correct the consequences of the misrepresentations.
Transfer, Combination and Split Up of ADRs
As an ADR holder, you will be entitled to transfer, combine or split up your ADRs and the ADSs evidenced thereby. For transfers of ADRs, you will have to surrender the ADRs to be transferred to the depositary and also must:
ensure that the surrendered ADR is properly endorsed or otherwise in proper form for transfer;
provide such proof of identity and genuineness of signatures, and of such other matters contemplated in the deposit agreement, as the depositary deems appropriate;
comply with applicable laws and regulations, including regulations imposed by us and the depositary consistent with the deposit agreement, the ADR and applicable law;
provide any transfer stamps required by the State of New York or the United States; and
pay all applicable fees, charges, expenses, taxes and other government charges payable by ADR holders pursuant to the terms of the deposit agreement, upon the transfer of ADRs.
To have your ADRs either combined or split up, you must surrender the ADRs in question to the depositary with your request to have them combined or split up, and you must pay all applicable fees, charges and expenses payable by ADR holders, pursuant to the terms of the deposit agreement, upon a combination or split up of ADRs.
Withdrawal of Ordinary Shares Upon Cancellation of ADSs
As a holder of ADSs, you will be entitled to present your ADSs to the depositary for cancellation and then receive the corresponding number of underlying ordinary shares at the custodian’s offices. Your ability to withdraw the ordinary shares held in respect of the ADSs may be limited by legal considerations under the laws of the United States and England and Wales applicable at the time of withdrawal. In order to withdraw the ordinary shares represented by your ADSs, you will be required to pay to the depositary the fees for cancellation of ADSs and any charges and taxes payable upon the transfer of the ordinary shares. You assume the risk for delivery of all funds and securities upon withdrawal. Once canceled, the ADSs will not have any rights under the
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deposit agreement. If you hold ADSs registered in your name, the depositary may ask you to provide proof of identity and genuineness of any signature and such other documents as the depositary may deem appropriate before it will cancel your ADSs. The withdrawal of the ordinary shares represented by your ADSs may be delayed until the depositary receives satisfactory evidence of compliance with all applicable laws and regulations. Please keep in mind that the depositary will only accept ADSs for cancellation that represent a whole number of securities on deposit.
You will have the right to withdraw the securities represented by your ADSs at any time except as a result of:
temporary delays that may arise because (1) the transfer books for the ordinary shares or ADSs are closed, or (2) ordinary shares are immobilized on account of a shareholders’ meeting or a payment of dividends;
obligations to pay fees, taxes and similar charges; or
restrictions imposed because of laws or regulations applicable to ADSs or the withdrawal of securities on deposit.
The deposit agreement may not be modified to impair your right to withdraw the securities represented by your ADSs except to comply with mandatory provisions of law.
Voting Rights
As a holder, you generally have the right under the deposit agreement to instruct the depositary to exercise the voting rights for the ordinary shares represented by your ADSs. The voting rights of holders of ordinary shares are described in the section titled “Description of Share Capital and Articles of Association” in this prospectus.
At our request, the depositary will distribute to you any notice of shareholders’ meeting received from us together with information explaining how to instruct the depositary to exercise the voting rights of the securities represented by ADSs.
If the depositary timely receives voting instructions from a holder of ADSs, it will endeavor to vote the securities (in person or by proxy) represented by the holder’s ADSs as follows:
In the event of voting by show of hands, the depositary will vote (or cause the custodian to vote) all ordinary shares held on deposit at that time in accordance with the voting instructions received from a majority of holders of ADSs who provide timely voting instructions.
In the event of voting by poll, the depositary will vote (or cause the custodian to vote) the ordinary shares held on deposit in accordance with the voting instructions received from the holders of ADSs.
Note that our articles of association currently provide for all resolutions to be decided as a poll, not a show of hands. The depositary will not join in demanding a vote by poll.
Securities for which no voting instructions have been received will not be voted (except (a) if voting is by show of hands, in which case the depositary will vote all deposited securities in accordance with voting instructions received from a majority of holders who provided voting instructions, and (b) as otherwise contemplated herein). Please note that the ability of the depositary to carry out voting instructions may be limited by practical and legal limitations and the terms of the securities on deposit. We cannot assure you that you will receive voting materials in time to enable you to return voting instructions to the depositary in a timely manner.
Fees and Charges
As an ADS holder, you will be required to pay the following fees under the terms of the deposit agreement:
SERVICE
FEE
Issuance of ADSs (e.g., an issuance of ADS upon a deposit of ordinary shares or upon a change in the ADS(s)-to-ordinary shares ratio, or for any other reason), excluding ADS issuances as a result of distributions of ordinary shares
Up to $0.05 per ADS issued
 
 
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SERVICE
FEE
Cancellation of ADSs (e.g., a cancellation of ADSs for delivery of deposited property or upon a change in the ADS(s)-to-ordinary shares ratio, or for any other reason)
Up to $0.05 per ADS cancelled
 
 
Distribution of cash dividends or other cash distributions (e.g., upon a sale of rights and other entitlements)
Up to $0.05 per ADS held
 
 
Distribution of ADSs pursuant to (i) share dividends or other distributions, or (ii) exercise of rights to purchase additional ADSs
Up to $0.05 per ADS held
 
 
Distribution of securities other than ADSs or rights to purchase additional ADSs (e.g., upon a spin-off)
Up to $0.05 per ADS held
 
 
ADS services
Up to $0.05 per ADS held on the applicable record date(s) established by the depositary
 
 
Registration of ADS transfers (e.g., upon a registration of the transfer of registered ownership of ADSs, upon a transfer of ADSs into DTC and vice versa, or for any other reason).
Up to $0.05 per ADS transferred
 
 
Conversion of ADSs of one series for ADSs of another series (e.g., upon conversion of Partial Entitlement ADSs for Full Entitlement ADSs, or upon conversion of Restricted ADSs into freely transferrable ADSs, and vice versa)
Up to $0.05 per ADS converted
As an ADS holder, you will also be responsible to pay certain charges such as:
taxes (including applicable interest and penalties) and other governmental charges;
the registration fees as may from time to time be in effect for the registration of ordinary shares on the share register and applicable to transfers of ordinary shares to or from the name of the custodian, the depositary or any nominees upon the making of deposits and withdrawals, respectively;
certain cable, telex and facsimile transmission and delivery expenses;
the expenses and charges incurred by the depositary in the conversion of foreign currency;
the fees and expenses incurred by the depositary in connection with compliance with exchange control regulations and other regulatory requirements applicable to ordinary shares, ADSs and ADRs;
any reasonable and customary out-of-pocket expenses incurred in such conversion and/or on behalf of the ADS holders and beneficial owners in complying with currency exchange control or other governmental requirements; and
the fees and expenses incurred by the depositary, the custodian or any nominee in connection with the servicing or delivery of deposited property.
ADS fees and charges payable upon (i) the issuance of ADSs, and (ii) the cancellation of ADSs are charged to the person to whom the ADSs are issued (in the case of ADS issuances) and to the person whose ADSs are cancelled (in the case of ADS cancellations). In the case of ADSs issued by the depositary into DTC, the ADS issuance and cancellation fees and charges may be deducted from distributions made through DTC, and may be charged to the DTC participant(s) receiving the ADSs being issued or the DTC participant(s) holding the ADSs being cancelled, as the case may be, on behalf of the beneficial owner(s) and will be charged by the DTC participant(s) to the account of the applicable beneficial owner(s) in accordance with the procedures and practices of the DTC participants as in effect at the time. ADS fees and charges in respect of distributions and the ADS service fee are charged to the holders as of the applicable ADS record date. In the case of distributions of cash, the amount of the applicable ADS fees and charges is deducted from the funds being distributed. In the case of
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(i) distributions other than cash and (ii) the ADS service fee, holders as of the ADS record date will be invoiced for the amount of the ADS fees and charges and such ADS fees and charges may be deducted from distributions made to holders of ADSs. For ADSs held through DTC, the ADS fees and charges for distributions other than cash and the ADS service fee may be deducted from distributions made through DTC, and may be charged to the DTC participants in accordance with the procedures and practices prescribed by DTC and the DTC participants in turn charge the amount of such ADS fees and charges to the beneficial owners for whom they hold ADSs.
In the event of refusal to pay the depositary fees or charges, the depositary may, under the terms of the deposit agreement, refuse the requested service until payment is received or may set off the amount of the depositary fees and charges from any distribution to be made to the ADS holder. Certain depositary fees and charges (such as the ADS services fee) may become payable shortly after the closing of this offering. Note that the fees and charges you may be required to pay may vary over time and may be changed by us and by the depositary. You will receive prior notice of such changes. The depositary may reimburse us for certain expenses incurred by us in respect of the ADSs, by making available a portion of the ADS fees charged in respect of the ADSs or otherwise, upon such terms and conditions as we and the depositary agree from time to time.
Amendments and Termination
We may agree with the depositary to modify the deposit agreement at any time without your consent. We undertake to give holders of ADSs 30 days’ prior notice of any modifications that would materially prejudice any of their substantial rights under the deposit agreement. We will not consider to be materially prejudicial to your substantial rights any modifications or supplements that are reasonably necessary for the ADSs to be registered under the Securities Act or to be eligible for book-entry settlement, in each case without imposing or increasing the fees and charges you are required to pay. In addition, we may not be able to provide you with prior notice of any modifications or supplements that are required to accommodate compliance with applicable provisions of law.
You will be bound by the modifications to the deposit agreement if you continue to hold your ADSs after the modifications to the deposit agreement become effective. The deposit agreement cannot be amended to prevent you from withdrawing the ordinary shares represented by your ADSs (except as permitted by law).
We have the right to direct the depositary to terminate the deposit agreement subject to certain conditions. Similarly, the depositary may in certain circumstances on its own initiative terminate the deposit agreement. In either case, the depositary must give notice to the holders at least 30 days before termination. Until termination, your rights under the deposit agreement will be unaffected.
After termination, the depositary will continue to collect distributions received (but will not distribute any such property until you request the cancellation of your ADSs) and may sell the securities held on deposit. After the sale, the depositary will hold the proceeds from such sale and any other funds then held for the holders of ADSs in a non-interest bearing account. At that point, the depositary will have no further obligations to ADS holders other than to account for the funds then held for the holders of ADSs still outstanding (after deduction of applicable fees, taxes and expenses).
In connection with the termination of the deposit agreement, the depositary may, but shall not be obligated to, independently and without the need for any action by us, make available to holders of ADSs a means to withdraw the ordinary shares and other deposited securities represented by their ADSs and to direct the deposit of such ordinary shares and other deposited securities into an unsponsored American depositary shares program established by the depositary, upon such terms and conditions as the depositary may deem reasonably appropriate, subject however, in each case, to satisfaction of the applicable registration requirements by the unsponsored American depositary shares program under the Securities Act, and to receipt by the depositary of payment of the applicable fees and charges of, and reimbursement of the applicable expenses incurred by, the depositary.
Books of Depositary
The depositary maintains ADS holder records at its depositary office. You may inspect such records at such office during regular business hours but solely for the purpose of communicating with other holders in the interest of business matters relating to the ADSs and the deposit agreement.
The depositary maintains in New York facilities to record and process the issuance, cancellation, combination, split-up and transfer of ADSs. These facilities may be closed from time to time, to the extent not prohibited by law.
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Transmission of Notices, Reports and Proxy Soliciting Material
The depositary will make available for your inspection at its office all communications that it receives from us as a holder of deposited securities that we make generally available to holders of deposited securities. Subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, the depositary will send you copies of those communications or otherwise make those communications available to you if we ask it to.
Limitations on Obligations and Liabilities
The deposit agreement limits our obligations and the depositary’s obligations to you. Please note the following:
We and the depositary are obligated only to take the actions specifically stated in the deposit agreement without negligence or bad faith.
The depositary disclaims any liability for any failure to carry out voting instructions, for any manner in which a vote is cast or for the effect of any vote, provided it acts in good faith and in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement.
The depositary disclaims any liability for any failure to accurately determine the lawfulness or practicality of any action, for the content of any document forwarded to you on our behalf or for the accuracy of any translation of such a document, for the investment risks associated with investing in ordinary shares, for the validity or worth of the ordinary shares, for any tax consequences that result from the ownership of ADSs or other deposited property, for the credit-worthiness of any third party, for allowing any rights to lapse under the terms of the deposit agreement, for the timeliness of any of our notices or for our failure to give notice or for any act or omission of or information provided by DTC or any DTC participant.
The depositary shall not be liable for acts or omissions of any successor depositary in connection with any matter arising wholly after the resignation or removal of the depositary.
We and the depositary will not be obligated to perform any act that is inconsistent with the terms of the deposit agreement.
We and the depositary disclaim any liability if we or the depositary are prevented or forbidden from or subject to any civil or criminal penalty or restraint on account of, or delayed in, doing or performing any act or thing required by the terms of the deposit agreement, by reason of any provision, present or future of any law or regulation, including regulations of any stock exchange or by reason of present or future provisions of our articles of association, or any provision of or governing the securities on deposit, or by reason of any act of God or war or other circumstances beyond our or the depositary’s control.
We and the depositary disclaim any liability by reason of any exercise of, or failure to exercise, any discretion provided for in the deposit agreement or in our articles of association or in any provisions of or governing the securities on deposit.
We and the depositary further disclaim any liability for any action or inaction in reliance on the advice or information received from legal counsel, accountants, any person presenting ordinary shares for deposit, any holder of ADSs or authorized representatives thereof, or any other person believed by either of us in good faith to be competent to give such advice or information.
We and the depositary also disclaim liability for the inability by any ADS holder or beneficiary owner to benefit from any distribution, offering, right or other benefit that is made available to holders of ordinary shares but is not, under the terms of the deposit agreement, made available to you.
We and the depositary may rely without any liability upon any written notice, request or other document believed to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper parties.
We and the depositary also disclaim liability for any consequential or punitive damages for any breach of the terms of the deposit agreement.
We and the depositary disclaim liability arising out of losses, liabilities, taxes, charges or expenses resulting from the manner in which a holder or beneficial owner of ADSs holds ADSs, including resulting from holding ADSs through a brokerage account.
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No disclaimer of any Securities Act liability is intended by any provision of the deposit agreement.
Nothing in the deposit agreement gives rise to a partnership or joint venture, or establishes a fiduciary relationship, among us, the depositary and you as ADS holder.
Nothing in the deposit agreement precludes Citibank (or its affiliates) from engaging in transactions in which parties adverse to us or the ADS owners have interests, and nothing in the deposit agreement obligates Citibank to disclose those transactions, or any information obtained in the course of those transactions, to us or to the ADS owners, or to account for any payment received as part of those transactions.
As the above limitations relate to our obligations and the depositary’s obligations to you under the deposit agreement, we believe that, as a matter of construction of the clause, such limitations would likely to continue to apply to ADS holders who withdraw the ordinary shares from the ADS facility with respect to obligations or liabilities incurred under the deposit agreement before the cancellation of the ADSs and the withdrawal of the ordinary shares, and such limitations would most likely not apply to ADS holders who withdraw the ordinary shares from the ADS facility with respect to obligations or liabilities incurred after the cancellation of the ADSs and the withdrawal of the ordinary shares and not under the deposit agreement.
In any event, you will not be deemed, by agreeing to the terms of the deposit agreement, to have waived our or the depositary’s compliance with U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. In fact, you cannot waive our or the depositary’s compliance with U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
Taxes
As a Holder or Beneficial Owner of ADSs, you will be responsible for the taxes and other governmental charges payable on the ADSs and the securities represented by the ADSs as provided for in the deposit agreement. We, the depositary and the custodian may deduct from any distribution the taxes and governmental charges payable by Holders and Beneficial Owners (as defined in the deposit agreement) of ADSs and may sell any and all property on deposit to pay the taxes and governmental charges payable by ADS holders. As a Holder or Beneficial Owner of ADSs, you will be liable for any deficiency if the sale proceeds do not cover the taxes that are due. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we expect to bear the cost of stamp duty or stamp duty reserve tax, if any, payable in respect of the issue of ordinary shares to the depositary in this offering.
The depositary may refuse to issue ADSs, to deliver, transfer, split and combine ADRs or to release securities on deposit until all taxes and charges are paid by the applicable Holder or Beneficial Owner (as defined in the deposit agreement) of ADSs. The depositary and the custodian may take reasonable administrative actions to obtain tax refunds and reduced tax withholding for any distributions on your behalf. However, you may be required to provide to the depositary and to the custodian proof of taxpayer status and residence and such other information as the depositary and the custodian may require to fulfill legal obligations. You are required to indemnify us, the depositary and the custodian for any claims with respect to taxes based on any tax benefit obtained for you.
Foreign Currency Conversion
The depositary will arrange for the conversion of all foreign currency received into U.S. dollars if such conversion is practical, and it will distribute the U.S. dollars in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement. You may have to pay fees and expenses incurred in converting foreign currency, such as fees and expenses incurred in complying with currency exchange controls and other governmental requirements.
If the conversion of foreign currency is not practical or lawful, or if any required approvals are denied or not obtainable at a reasonable cost or within a reasonable period, the depositary may take any of the following actions in its discretion:
Convert the foreign currency to the extent practical and lawful and distribute the U.S. dollars to the ADS holders for whom the conversion and distribution is lawful and practical.
Distribute the foreign currency to ADS holders for whom the distribution is lawful and practical.
Hold the foreign currency (without liability for interest) for the applicable ADS holders.
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Governing Law / Waiver of Jury Trial
The deposit agreement and the ADRs and ADSs will be interpreted in accordance with the laws of the State of New York. The rights of holders of ordinary shares (including ordinary shares represented by ADSs) are governed by the laws of England and Wales.
As an owner of ADSs, you irrevocably agree that any legal action arising out of the Deposit Agreement, the ADSs or the ADRs, involving the Company or the Depositary, may only be instituted in a state or federal court in the city of New York.
AS A PARTY TO THE DEPOSIT AGREEMENT, YOU WAIVE IRREVOCABLY YOUR RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF THE DEPOSIT AGREEMENT OR THE ADSs AGAINST US AND/OR THE DEPOSITARY.
The deposit agreement provides that, to the extent permitted by law, ADS holders waive the right to a jury trial of any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to our ordinary shares, the ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under U.S. federal securities laws. If we or the depositary opposed a jury trial demand based on the waiver, the court would determine whether the waiver was enforceable in the facts and circumstances of that case in accordance with applicable case law. However, you will not be deemed, by agreeing to the terms of the deposit agreement, to have waived our or the depositary’s compliance with U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
The deposit agreement provides that, to the extent permitted by law, ADS holders waive the right to a jury trial of any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to our ordinary shares, the ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under U.S. federal securities laws. The waiver continues to apply to claims that arise during the period when a holder holds the ADSs, whether the ADS holder purchased the ADSs in this offering or secondary transactions, even if the ADS holder subsequently withdraws the underlying ordinary shares. If we or the depositary opposed a jury trial demand based on the waiver, the court would determine whether the waiver was enforceable in the facts and circumstances of that case in accordance with applicable case law. However, you will not be deemed, by agreeing to the terms of the deposit agreement, to have waived our or the depositary’s compliance with U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any future debt securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we so indicate in a prospectus supplement, the terms of any debt securities offered under such prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below, and to the extent the terms set forth in a prospectus supplement differ from the terms described below, the terms set forth in the prospectus supplement shall control.
We may sell from time to time, in one or more offerings under this prospectus, debt securities, which may be senior, senior subordinated or subordinated. We will issue any such senior debt securities under a senior indenture that we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the senior indenture. We will issue any such subordinated debt securities under a subordinated indenture, which we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the subordinated indenture. We have filed forms of these documents as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part. We use the term “indentures” to refer to either the senior indenture or the subordinated indenture, as applicable. The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as in effect on the date of the indenture. We use the term “debenture trustee” to refer to either the trustee under the senior indenture or the trustee under the subordinated indenture, as applicable.
The following summaries of material provisions of the senior debt securities, the subordinated debt securities and the indentures are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities.
General
Each indenture provides that debt securities may be issued from time to time in one or more series and may be denominated and payable in foreign currencies or units based on or relating to foreign currencies. Neither indenture limits the amount of debt securities that may be issued thereunder, and each indenture provides that the specific terms of any series of debt securities shall be set forth in, or determined pursuant to, an authorizing resolution and/or a supplemental indenture, if any, relating to such series.
We will describe in each prospectus supplement the following terms relating to a series of debt securities:
title or designation;
the aggregate principal amount and any limit on the amount that may be issued;
the currency or units based on or relating to currencies in which debt securities of such series are denominated and the currency or units in which principal or interest or both will or may be payable;
whether we will issue the series of debt securities in global form, the terms of any global securities and who the depositary will be;
the maturity date and the date or dates on which principal will be payable;
the interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the date or dates interest will be payable and the record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;
whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;
the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;
the place or places where payments will be payable;
our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;
the date, if any, after which, and the price at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional redemption provisions;
the date, if any, on which, and the price at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities;
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whether the indenture will restrict our ability to pay dividends, or will require us to maintain any asset ratios or reserves;
whether we will be restricted from incurring any additional indebtedness;
a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to a series of debt securities;
the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof; and
any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities. We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Conversion or Exchange Rights
We will set forth in the prospectus supplement the terms, if any, on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our ordinary shares or our other securities. We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of ordinary shares or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.
Consolidation, Merger or Sale; No Protection in Event of a Change of Control or Highly Leveraged Transaction
The indentures do not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets must assume all of our obligations under the indentures or the debt securities, as appropriate.
Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change of control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change of control), which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.
Events of Default Under the Indenture
The following are events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:
if we fail to pay interest when due and our failure continues for 90 days and the time for payment has not been extended or deferred;
if we fail to pay the principal, or premium, if any, when due and the time for payment has not been extended or delayed;
if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant set forth in the debt securities of such series or the applicable indentures, other than a covenant specifically relating to and for the benefit of holders of another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice from the debenture trustee or holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and
if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur as to us.
No event of default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an event of default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of an event of default may constitute an event of default under any bank credit agreements we may have in existence from time to time. In addition, the occurrence of certain events of default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain of our other indebtedness outstanding from time to time.
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If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the debenture trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) of and premium and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. Before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained with respect to debt securities of any series, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may rescind and annul the acceleration if all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the applicable indenture (including payments or deposits in respect of principal, premium or interest that had become due other than as a result of such acceleration). We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an event of default.
Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the debenture trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the debenture trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the debenture trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the debenture trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:
the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and
subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the debenture trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.
A holder of the debt securities of any series will only have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies if:
these limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities;
the holder previously has given written notice to the debenture trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;
the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request to institute the proceeding, and such holders have offered indemnity satisfactory to the debenture trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee; and
the debenture trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) other conflicting directions within 60 days after the notice, request and offer.
We will periodically file statements with the applicable debenture trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the applicable indenture.
Modification of Indenture; Waiver
The debenture trustee and we may change the applicable indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters, including:
to fix any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities; and
to change anything that does not materially adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities of any series issued pursuant to such indenture.
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In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the debenture trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) that is affected. However, the debenture trustee and we may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:
extending the fixed maturity of the series of debt securities;
reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or any premium payable upon the redemption of any debt securities; or
reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment or waiver.
Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series, which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security of the series affected; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.
Discharge
Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for obligations to:
the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;
replace stolen, lost, destroyed or mutilated debt securities of the series;
payment of principal, premium and interest;
maintain an office or agency;
maintain paying agents;
hold monies for payment in trust;
compensate and indemnify the trustee; and
appoint any successor trustee.
In order to exercise our rights to be discharged with respect to a series, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, the premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.
Form, Exchange, and Transfer
We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indentures provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company or another depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series.
At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.
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Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange or in the applicable indenture, we will make no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.
We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.
If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:
issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or
register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.
Information Concerning the Debenture Trustee
The debenture trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under the applicable indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the debenture trustee under such indenture must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the debenture trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indentures at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.
Payment and Paying Agents
Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.
We will pay the principal of and any premium and interest due on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, will we make interest payments by check which we will mail to the holder. Unless we otherwise indicate in a prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the debenture trustee in the City of New York as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.
All money we pay to a paying agent or the debenture trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities which remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.
Governing Law
The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.
Subordination of Subordinated Debt Securities
Our obligations pursuant to any subordinated debt securities will be unsecured and will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of senior indebtedness we may incur. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
General
We may issue warrants to purchase our ordinary shares represented by ADSs and/or debt securities in one or more series together with other securities or separately, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Below is a description of certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer. Particular terms of the warrants will be described in the warrant agreements and the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants.
The applicable prospectus supplement will contain, where applicable, the following terms of and other information relating to the warrants:
the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the price at which we will issue, the warrants;
the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;
the designation, amount and terms of the securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;
if applicable, the exercise price for our ADSs and the number of ADSs to be received upon exercise;
if applicable, the exercise price for our debt securities, the amount of debt securities to be received upon exercise, and a description of that series of debt securities;
the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;
whether the warrants will be issued in fully registered form or bearer form, in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms;
any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences and any applicable material U.K. tax consequences;
the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;
the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;
if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and the ADSs and/or debt securities will be separately transferable;
if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;
information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;
the anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any;
any redemption or call provisions; and
any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for any warrants will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
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TAXATION
The material U.K. and U.S. federal income tax consequences relating to the purchase, ownership and disposition of any of the securities offered by this prospectus will be set forth in the prospectus supplement pertaining to those securities.
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LEGAL MATTERS
The validity of our ordinary shares, including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs being offered by this prospectus and certain other matters of English law will be passed upon for us by Cooley (UK) LLP. The validity of the warrants and certain other matters of U.S. federal law will be passed upon for us by Cooley LLP. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for any underwriters, dealers or agents by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.
EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements of Immunocore Holdings plc and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2021, have been incorporated by reference herein and in the registration statement in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
The registered business address of KPMG LLP are located at 15 Canada Square, Canary Wharf, London, E14 5GL, United Kingdom.
SERVICE OF PROCESS AND ENFORCEMENT OF LIABILITIES
We are incorporated and currently existing under the laws of England and Wales. In addition, certain of our directors and officers reside outside of the United States and most of the assets of our non-U.S. subsidiaries are located outside of the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process on us or those persons in the United States or to enforce in the United States judgments obtained in U.S. courts against us or those persons based on the civil liability or other provisions of the U.S. securities laws or other laws.
In addition, uncertainty exists as to whether the courts of England and Wales would:
recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts obtained against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the civil liabilities provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States; or
entertain original actions brought in England and Wales against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.
We have been advised by Cooley (UK) LLP and Cooley LLP that there is currently no treaty between (i) the United States and (ii) England and Wales providing for reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of U.S. courts in civil and commercial matters (although the United States and the United Kingdom are both parties to the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards) and that a final judgment for the payment of money rendered by any general or state court in the United States based on civil liability, whether or not predicated solely upon the United States securities laws, would not be automatically enforceable in England and Wales. We have also been advised by Cooley (UK) LLP and Cooley LLP that any final and conclusive monetary judgment for a definite sum obtained against us in United States courts would be treated by the courts of England and Wales as a cause of action in itself and sued upon as a debt at common law so that no retrial of the issues would be necessary, provided that:
the relevant U.S. court had jurisdiction over the original proceedings according to English conflicts of laws principles at the time when proceedings were initiated;
England and Wales courts had jurisdiction over the matter on enforcement and we either submitted to such jurisdiction or were resident or carrying on business within such jurisdiction and were duly served with process;
the U.S. judgment was final and conclusive on the merits in the sense of being final and unalterable in the court that pronounced it and being for a definite sum of money;
the judgment given by the courts was not in respect of penalties, taxes, fines or similar fiscal or revenue obligations (or otherwise based on a U.S. law that an English court considers to relate to a penal, revenue or other public law);
the judgment was not procured by fraud;
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the judgment was not obtained following a breach of a jurisdictional or arbitrational clause, unless with the agreement of the defendant as the defendant’s subsequent submission to the jurisdiction of the court;
recognition or enforcement of the judgment in England and Wales would not be contrary to public policy or the Human Rights Act 1998;
the proceedings pursuant to which judgment was obtained were not contrary to natural justice;
the U.S. judgment was not arrived at by doubling, trebling or otherwise multiplying a sum assessed as compensation for the loss or damages sustained and not being otherwise in breach of Section 5 of the U.K. Protection of Trading Interests Act 1980, or is a judgment based on measures designated by the Secretary of State under Section 1 of that Act;
there is not a prior decision of an English court or the court of another jurisdiction on the issues in question between the same parties; and
the English enforcement proceedings were commenced within the limitation period.
Whether these requirements are met in respect of a judgment based upon the civil liability provisions of the United States securities laws, including whether the award of monetary damages under such laws would constitute a penalty, is an issue for the court making such decision.
Subject to the foregoing, investors may be able to enforce in England and Wales judgments in civil and commercial matters that have been obtained from U.S. federal or state courts. Nevertheless, we cannot assure you that those judgments will be recognized or enforceable in England and Wales.
If an English court gives judgment for the sum payable under a U.S. judgment, the English judgment will be enforceable by methods generally available for this purpose. These methods generally permit the English court discretion to prescribe the manner of enforcement. In addition, it may not be possible to obtain an English judgment or to enforce that judgment if the judgment debtor is or becomes subject to any insolvency or similar proceedings, or if the judgment debtor has any set-off or counterclaim against the judgment creditor. Also note that, in any enforcement proceedings, the judgment debtor may raise any counterclaim that could have been brought if the action had been originally brought in England unless the subject of the counterclaim was in issue and denied in the U.S. proceedings.
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, that are applicable to a foreign private issuer. Under the Exchange Act, we file annual reports on Form 20-F and other information with the SEC. We also furnish to the SEC under cover of Form 6-K material information required to be made public in the United Kingdom, filed with and made public by any stock exchange on which we are listed or distributed by us to our shareholders. As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from, among other things, the rules under the Exchange Act prescribing the furnishing and content of proxy statements and our officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act.
The SEC maintains a web site that contains reports and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov.
This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement on Form F-3 that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Forms of the documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website, as provided above.
We also maintain a website at www.immunocore.com through which you can access our SEC filings. Information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of, and shall not be incorporated by reference into, this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.
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INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus. Incorporation by reference allows us to disclose important information to you by referring you to those other documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. Any statement contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus modifies or replaces that statement.
This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:
our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 3, 2022;
our report on Form 6-K furnished to the SEC on January 26, 2022; and
the description of our ADSs representing our ordinary shares contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, as filed with the SEC under Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act on February 2, 2021, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description (File No. 001-39992), including Exhibit 2.4 to our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on March 25, 2021.
We are also incorporating by reference all subsequent Annual Reports on Form 20-F that we file with the SEC and certain reports on Form 6-K that we furnish to the SEC after the date of this prospectus (if they state that they are incorporated by reference into this prospectus) prior to the termination of the offering of securities under this Registration Statement. In all cases, you should rely on the later information over different information included in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.
Unless expressly incorporated by reference, nothing in this prospectus shall be deemed to incorporate by reference information furnished to, but not filed with, the SEC. Copies of all documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, other than exhibits to those documents unless such exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference in this prospectus, will be provided at no cost to each person, including any beneficial owner, who receives a copy of this prospectus on the written or oral request of that person made to:
Immunocore Holdings plc
Attention: Investor Relations
92 Park Drive
Milton Park
Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 4RY
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)1235 438600.
In addition, copies of the documents incorporated herein by reference may be accessed at our website at www.immunocore.com. The reference to our website address does not constitute incorporation by reference of the information contained on or accessible through our website, and you should not consider the contents of our website in making an investment decision with respect to our ADSs.
You should rely only on information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We are not making offers to sell the securities in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation.
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EXPENSES ASSOCIATED WITH REGISTRATION
The following table sets forth fees and expenses payable by the registrant, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered hereby. All amounts set forth below are estimates. All of such expenses are being borne by the registrant.
SEC registration fee
$  (1)
FINRA filing fee
(1)
Legal fees and expenses
(2)
Accounting fees and expenses
(2)
Printing expenses
(2)
Miscellaneous expenses
  (2)
Total
$  (2)
(1)
This registration statement relates to the registration of securities having an indeterminate maximum aggregate amount. Payment of the registration fee has been deferred and will be calculated and paid in accordance with Rule 456(b) and Rule 457(r) under the Securities Act.
(2)
These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.
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Ordinary Shares
American Depositary Shares representing Ordinary Shares
Debt Securities
Warrants
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PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 8.
Indemnification of Directors and Officers.
Subject to the U.K. Companies Act 2006, members of the registrant’s board of directors and its officers have the benefit of the following indemnification provisions in the registrant’s articles of association:
Current and former members of the registrant’s board of directors or officers shall be indemnified for all costs, charges, losses, expenses and liabilities sustained or incurred, including any liability incurred in defending any criminal or civil proceedings in which judgement is given is his favor or in which he is acquitted or the proceedings are otherwise disposed of without any finding or admission of any material breach of duty on his behalf or in connection with any application in which the court grants him relief from liability for negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the registrant’s or its group’s affairs.
In the case of current or former members of the registrant’s board of directors, in compliance with the Companies Act, there shall be no entitlement to indemnification as referred to above for (i) any liability incurred to the registrant or any associated company, (ii) the payment of a fine imposed in any criminal proceeding or a penalty imposed by a regulatory authority for non-compliance with any requirement of a regulatory nature, (iii) the defense of any criminal proceeding if the member of the registrant’s board of directors is convicted, (iv) the defense of any civil proceeding brought by the registrant or an associated company in which judgment is given against the director, and (v) any application for relief under the Companies Act in which the court refuses to grant relief to the director.
The registrant may provide any current or former director or officer with funds to meet expenditure incurred or to be incurred by them in connection with any proceedings or application referred to above and otherwise may take any action to enable any such relevant officer to avoid incurring such expenditure. Members of the registrant’s board of directors and its officers who have received payment from the registrant under the relevant indemnification provisions must repay the amount they received in accordance with the Companies Act or in any other circumstances that the registrant may prescribe or where the registrant has reserved the right to require repayment.
Item 9.
Exhibits.
The following exhibits are filed with this registration statement or are incorporated herein by reference.
EXHIBIT
NUMBER
DESCRIPTION OF EXHIBIT
INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
SCHEDULE/
FORM
FILE
NUMBER
EXHIBIT
FILE
DATE
1.1*
Form of Underwriting Agreement.
 
 
 
 
Articles of Association of Immunocore Holdings plc.
Form 20-F
001-39992
1.1
03/25/21
Deposit Agreement.
Form 20-F
001-39992
2.1
03/25/21
Form of American Depositary Receipt (included in exhibit 4.1).
Form 20-F
001-39992
2.3
03/25/21
Subscription Agreement between the registrant and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, dated February 3, 2021.
F-1/A
333-252166
4.3
02/03/21
Form of Indenture.
 
 
 
 
4.5*
Form of Debt Securities.
 
 
 
 
Form of Ordinary Share Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.
 
 
 
 
Form of Debt Securities Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.
 
 
 
 
Opinion of Cooley (UK) LLP.
 
 
 
 
Opinion of Cooley LLP.
 
 
 
 
Consent of KPMG LLP, the registrant’s independent registered public accounting firm.
 
 
 
 
Consent of Cooley (UK) LLP (included in exhibit 5.1).
 
 
 
 
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EXHIBIT
NUMBER
DESCRIPTION OF EXHIBIT
INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
SCHEDULE/
FORM
FILE
NUMBER
EXHIBIT
FILE
DATE
Consent of Cooley LLP (included in exhibit 5.2).
 
 
 
 
Power of Attorney (included on signature page to registration statement).
 
 
 
 
25.1*
Statement of Eligibility of Trustee under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (to be filed separately in accordance with Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, if applicable).
 
 
 
 
*
To be subsequently filed, if applicable, by an amendment to this registration statement or by a Report on Form 6-K
Item 10.
Undertakings.
(a)
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:
(1)
To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i)
To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
(ii)
To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and
(iii)
To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii), and (a)(1)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is a part of the registration statement.
(2)
That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3)
To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(4)
To file a post-effective amendment to the registration statement to include any financial statements required by Item 8.A of Form 20-F at the start of any delayed offering or throughout a continuous offering. Financial statements and information otherwise required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933 need not be furnished, provided, that the registrant includes in the prospectus, by means of a post-effective amendment, financial statements required pursuant to this paragraph (a)(4) and other information necessary to ensure that all other information in the prospectus is at least as current as the date of those financial statements. Notwithstanding the foregoing, with respect to registration statements on Form F-3, a post-effective amendment need not be filed to include financial statements and
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information required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933, or Item 8.A of Form 20-F if such financial statements and information are contained in periodic reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the Form F-3.
(5)
That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
(i)
Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(ii)
Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
(6)
That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:
The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
(i)
Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
(ii)
Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
(iii)
The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
(iv)
Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
(7)
That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s Annual Report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s Annual Report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(8)
To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act (“Act”) in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under section 305(b)(2) of the Act.
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(9)
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form F-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Oxford, United Kingdom, on April 4, 2022.
 
 
IMMUNOCORE HOLDINGS PLC
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Bahija Jallal, Ph.D.
 
 
Name: Bahija Jallal, Ph.D.
 
 
Title: Chief Executive Officer
POWER OF ATTORNEY AND SIGNATURES
We, the undersigned officers and directors of Immunocore Holdings plc hereby severally constitute and appoint Bahija Jallal, Ph.D. and Brian Di Donato our true and lawful attorneys with full power to any of them, and to each of them singly, to sign for us and in our names in the capacities indicated below the Registration Statement on Form F-3 filed herewith and any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to said Registration Statement, and any registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, in connection with said Registration Statement, and to file or cause to be filed the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and generally to do all such things in our name and on our behalf in our capacities as officers and directors to enable Immunocore Holdings plc to comply with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and all requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys, and each of them, or their substitute or substitutes, shall do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
SIGNATURE
TITLE
DATE
/s/ Bahija Jallal, Ph.D.
Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)
April 4, 2022
Bahija Jallal, Ph.D.
 
 
 
/s/ Brian Di Donato
Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer)
April 4, 2022
Brian Di Donato
 
 
 
/s/ Professor Sir John Bell
Chairman of the Board of Directors
April 4, 2022
Professor Sir John Bell
 
 
 
/s/ Travis Coy
Director
April 4, 2022
Travis Coy
 
 
 
/s/ Roy S. Herbst, M.D., Ph.D.
Director
April 4, 2022
Roy S. Herbst, M.D., Ph.D.
 
 
 
/s/ Robert Perez
Director
April 4, 2022
Robert Perez
 
 
 
/s/ Kristine Peterson
Director
April 4, 2022
Kristine Peterson
 
 
 
/s/ Professor Sir Peter Ratcliffe
Director
April 4, 2022
Professor Sir Peter Ratcliffe
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SIGNATURE OF AUTHORIZED U.S. REPRESENTATIVE
Pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933, the undersigned, the duly authorized representative in the United States of Immunocore Holdings plc has signed this registration statement or amendment thereto on April 4, 2022.
 
 
IMMUNOCORE, LLC
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Bahija Jallal, Ph.D.
 
Name:
Bahija Jallal, Ph.D.
 
Title:
Authorized Signatory
II-6

 

Exhibit 4.4

 

 

IMMUNOCORE HOLDINGS PLC,
Iss
uer

AND

[TRUSTEE],
Trustee

 

_______________

 

INDENTURE

Dated as of [·], 20__

 

_______________

 

Debt Securities

 

     

 

 

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      PAGE
       
article 1 DEFINITIONS 1
       
  Section 1.01 Definitions of Terms 1
       
article 2 ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES 5
       
  Section 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities 5
       
  Section 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate 8
       
  Section 2.03 Denominations: Provisions for Payment 8
       
  Section 2.04 Execution and Authentications 10
       
  Section 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange 11
       
  Section 2.06 Temporary Securities 12
       
  Section 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities 12
       
  Section 2.08 Cancellation 13
       
  Section 2.09 Benefits of Indenture 14
       
  Section 2.10 Authenticating Agent 14
       
  Section 2.11 Global Securities 14
       
  Section 2.12 CUSIP Numbers 15
       
article 3 REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS 16
       
  Section 3.01 Redemption 16
       
  Section 3.02 Notice of Redemption 16
       
  Section 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption 17
       
  Section 3.04 Sinking Fund 17
       
  Section 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 18
       
  Section 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 18
       
article 4 COVENANTS 18
       
  Section 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest 18
       
  Section 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency 18
       
  Section 4.03 Paying Agents 19
       
  Section 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee 20

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

(CONTINUED)

 

    PAGE
     
article 5 SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE 20
       
  Section 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders 20
       
  Section 5.02 Preservation of Information; Communications With Securityholders 21
       
  Section 5.03 Reports by the Company 21
       
  Section 5.04 Reports by the Trustee 22
       
article 6 REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT 22
       
  Section 6.01 Events of Default 22
       
  Section 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 24
       
  Section 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected 25
       
  Section 6.04 Limitation on Suits 26
       
  Section 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver 27
       
  Section 6.06 Control by Securityholders 27
       
  Section 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs 28
       
article 7 CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE 28
       
  Section 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee 28
       
  Section 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee 29
       
  Section 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities 31
       
  Section 7.04 May Hold Securities 32
       
  Section 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust 32
       
  Section 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement 32
       
  Section 7.07 Reliance on Officer’s Certificate 33
       
  Section 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests 33
       
  Section 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility 33
       
  Section 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor 34
       
  Section 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment by Successor 35
       
  Section 7.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business 36

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

(CONTINUED)

 

      PAGE
       
  Section 7.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company 36
       
  Section 7.14 Notice of Default. 36
       
article 8 CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS 37
       
  Section 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders 37
       
  Section 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders 37
       
  Section 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners 38
       
  Section 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded 38
       
  Section 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders 38
       
article 9 SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES 39
       
  Section 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders 39
       
  Section 9.02 Supplemental Indentures with Consent of Securityholders 40
       
  Section 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures 40
       
  Section 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures 41
       
  Section 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures 41
       
article 10 SUCCESSOR ENTITY 42
       
  Section 10.01 Company May Consolidate, Etc. 42
       
  Section 10.02 Successor Entity Substituted 42
       
article 11 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE 43
       
  Section 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 43
       
  Section 11.02 Discharge of Obligations 43
       
  Section 11.03 Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust 43
       
  Section 11.04 Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents 44
       
  Section 11.05 Repayment to Company 44
       
article 12 IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS 44
       
  Section 12.01 No Recourse 44
       
article 13 MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 45
       
  Section 13.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns 45
       
  Section 13.02 Actions by Successor 45
       
  Section 13.03 Surrender of Company Powers 45

 

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(CONTINUED)

 

      PAGE
       
  Section 13.04 Notices 45
       
  Section 13.05 Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver 45
       
  Section 13.06 Treatment of Securities as Debt 46
       
  Section 13.07 Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent 46
       
  Section 13.08 Payments on Business Days 46
       
  Section 13.09 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act 47
       
  Section 13.10 Counterparts 47
       
  Section 13.11 Separability 47
       
  Section 13.12 Compliance Certificates 47
       
  Section 13.13 Patriot Act 47
       
  Section 13.14 Force Majeure 48
       
  Section 13.12 Table of Contents; Headings 48

 

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INDENTURE

 

Indenture, dated as of [·], 20__, among Immunocore Holdings plc, a public limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales under company number 13119746 and having its registered office at 92 Park Drive, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, OX14 4RY (the “Company”), and [Trustee], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

 

Whereas, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

 

Whereas, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

 

Whereas, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

Now, Therefore, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

 

article 1

DEFINITIONS

 

Section 1.01         Definitions of Terms.

 

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

 

Authenticating Agent” means the Trustee or an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

 

Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

 

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Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors (or the functional equivalent thereof) of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors (or duly authorized committee thereof, as applicable) and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

 

Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in England, Wales, the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York, or in the city of the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

 

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

 

Company” means Immunocore Holdings plc, a public limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales under company number 13119746 and having its registered office at 92 Park Drive, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, OX14 4RY, and, subject to the provisions of Article Ten, shall also include its successors and assigns.

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at                                                                                                                                   .

 

Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.

 

Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

 

Exchange Act” means the United States Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder.

 

The term “given”, “mailed”, “notify” or “sent” with respect to any notice to be given to a Securityholder pursuant to this Indenture, shall mean notice (x) given to the Depositary (or its designee) pursuant to the standing instructions from the Depositary or its designee, including by electronic mail in accordance with accepted practices or procedures at the Depositary (in the case of a Global Security) or (y) mailed to such Securityholder by first class mail, postage prepaid, at its address as it appears on the Security Register (in the case of a definitive Security). Notice so “given” shall be deemed to include any notice to be “mailed” or “delivered,” as applicable, under this Indenture.

 

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Global Security” means a Security issued to evidence all or a part of any series of Securities which is executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

 

Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (a) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (b) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof at any time prior to the stated maturity of the Securities, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

herein”, “hereof and “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

 

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.01.

 

Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

 

Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the chairman of the Board of Directors, a chief executive officer, a president, a chief financial officer, a chief operating officer, any executive vice president, any senior vice president, any vice president, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, the controller or any assistant controller or the secretary or any assistant secretary.

 

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

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Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing subject to customary exceptions of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company, that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as provided in Article Three, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

 

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

 

Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

 

Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer within the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and in each case who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

 

Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security is registered on the Security Register kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

 

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Security Register” and “Security Registrar” shall have the meanings as set forth in Section 2.05.

 

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any corporation, association, partnership or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of capital stock or other interests (including partnership interests) entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers, general partners or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by (i) such Person; (ii) such Person and one or more Subsidiaries of such Person; or (iii) one or more Subsidiaries of such Person.

 

Trustee” means _________________________, and, subject to the provisions of Article Seven, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

 

Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

 

“U.S.A. Patriot Act” means the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107-56, as amended and signed into law October 26, 2001.

 

article 2

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

 

Section 2.01         Designation and Terms of Securities.

 

(a)           The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

 

(1)       the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that series from all other Securities);

 

(2)       any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

 

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(3)       the maturity date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable;

 

(4)       the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the certificate of authentication for such series;

 

(5)       the applicability of any guarantees;

 

(6)       whether or not the Securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

(7)       the place or places where payments will be payable;

 

(8)       whether the Securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

(9)       if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such Securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

(10)       the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

(11)       the Company’s right, if any, to defer the payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

(12)       if applicable, the date or dates after which, and the price or prices at which, the Company may at its option, redeem the series of Securities pursuant to any optional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

(13)       the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which the Company is obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the Securityholder’s option to purchase, any series of Securities;

 

(14)       whether the Company’s ability to pay dividends will be restricted pursuant to the Indenture, or whether the Company will be required pursuant to the Indenture to maintain any asset ratios or reserves;

 

(15)       whether the Company will be restricted from incurring any additional indebtedness;

 

(16)       the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable, if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof;

 

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(17)       any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the Securities of that series and any security for the obligations of the Company with respect to such Securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

 

(18)       whether the Securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a Global Security or Securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such Global Security or Securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual Securities; and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities;

 

(19)       if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at the Company’s option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange, which may, without limitation, include the payment of cash as well as the delivery of securities;

 

(20)       if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;

 

(21)       additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the series of Securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

 

(22)       additions to or changes in the Events of Default with respect to the Securities and any change in the right of the Trustee or the Securityholders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such Securities to be due and payable;

 

(23)       additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

(24)       additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture;

 

(25)       additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of this Indenture both with and without the consent of Securityholders of Securities issued under this Indenture;

 

(26)       the currency or units based on or relating to currencies in which Securities are denominated and the currency or units in which principal or interest may be payable; and if the currency is other than U.S. dollars the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

(27)       any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to a series of Securities;

 

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(28)       whether interest will be payable in cash or additional Securities at the Company’s or the Securityholders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

 

(29)       the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Company shall pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the Securities of the series to any Securityholder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

(30)       any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the Securities of the series; and

 

(31)       any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the Securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of this Indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

 

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

 

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officer’s Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

 

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.

 

Section 2.02         Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.

 

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, and they may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

 

Section 2.03         Denominations: Provisions for Payment.

 

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(13). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. Subject to Section 2.01(a)(23), the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption or repurchase thereof prior to maturity, and any cash amount due upon conversion or exchange thereof, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

 

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The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

 

Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

 

(1)       The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered in the Security Register at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be sent, to each Securityholder not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been sent as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered in the Security Register on such special record date.

 

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(2)       The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

 

Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities and any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the first day of the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

 

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

 

Section 2.04         Execution and Authentications.

 

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by one of its Officers. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature.

 

The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been an Officer (at the time of execution), notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be such an officer of the Company. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.

 

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by an Officer, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

 

Upon the Company’s delivery of any such authentication order to the Trustee at any time after the initial issuance of Securities under this Indenture, the Trustee shall be provided with, and (subject to Sections 315(a) through 315(d) of the Trust Indenture Act) shall be fully protected in relying upon, (1) an Opinion of Counsel or reliance letter and (2) an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent to the execution, authentication and delivery of such Securities are in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

 

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The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

Section 2.05         Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

 

(a)       Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

(b)       The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution or Supplemental Indenture (the “Security Registrar”).

 

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

 

The Company initially appoints the Trustee as Security Registrar for each series of Securities.

 

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

 

(c)       Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, no service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series or repurchase, conversion or exchange of less than the entire principal amount of a Security, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

 

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(d)       The Company and the Security Registrar shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the sending of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such sending, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption or surrendered for repurchase, but not validly withdrawn, other than the unredeemed portion of any such Securities being redeemed in part or not surrendered for repurchase, as the case may be. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

 

The Trustee shall have no obligation or duty to monitor, determine or inquire as to compliance with any restrictions on transfer imposed under this Indenture or under applicable law with respect to any transfer of any interest in any Security (including any transfers between or among Depositary participants or beneficial owners of interests in any Global Security) other than to require delivery of such certificates and other documentation or evidence as are expressly required by, and to do so if and when expressly required by the terms of, this Indenture, and to examine the same to determine substantial compliance as to form with the express requirements hereof.

 

Section 2.06         Temporary Securities.

 

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the Securityholders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

 

Section 2.07         Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

 

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

 

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In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

 

Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

 

Section 2.08         Cancellation.

 

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, repurchase, exchange, registration of transfer or conversion shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent (or any other applicable agent), be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

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Section 2.09         Benefits of Indenture.

 

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.

 

Section 2.10         Authenticating Agent.

 

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption, repurchase or conversion thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

 

Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

 

Section 2.11         Global Securities.

 

(a)           If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all of the Outstanding Securities of such series, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction (or if the Depositary names the Trustee as its custodian, retained by the Trustee), and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

 

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(b)           Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

(c)           If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, or if an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing and the Company has received a request from the Depositary or from the Trustee, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event the Company will execute and, subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

Section 2.12         CUSIP Numbers.

 

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Securityholders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Company will promptly notify the Trustee of any change in the “CUSIP” numbers.

 

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article 3

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

 

Section 3.01        Redemption.

 

The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

 

Section 3.02         Notice of Redemption.

 

(a)           In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with any right the Company reserved for itself to do so pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, first class postage prepaid (or with regard to any Global Security held in book entry form, by electronic mail in accordance with the applicable procedures of the Depositary), a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such Securityholders, unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed. Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice. In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officer’s Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.

 

Each such notice of redemption shall identify the Securities to be redeemed (including CUSIP numbers, if any), specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is from a sinking fund, if such is the case. If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed.

 

In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

 

(b)           If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 45 days’ notice (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Securities to be redeemed shall be selected, by lot, on a pro rata basis, or in such other manner as the Company shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part. The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by an Officer, instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent may deem advisable. In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.

 

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Section 3.03         Payment Upon Redemption.

 

(a)           If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to, but excluding, the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof. On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to, but excluding, the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an Interest Payment Date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

 

(b)           Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the Securityholder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

 

Section 3.04         Sinking Fund.

 

The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.

 

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The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

 

Section 3.05         Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

 

The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

 

Section 3.06         Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

 

Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities (unless a shorter period shall be satisfactory to the Trustee), the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officer’s Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date shall be selected in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and the Company shall cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

 

article 4

COVENANTS

 

Section 4.01         Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

 

The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities. Payments of principal on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check drawn on and mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions to the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date. Payments of interest on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions in writing to the Security Registrar and the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date.

 

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Section 4.02         Maintenance of Office or Agency.

 

So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as herein above authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by any officer authorized to sign an Officer’s Certificate and delivered to the Trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands. The Company initially appoints the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as its paying agent with respect to the Securities.

 

Section 4.03         Paying Agents.

 

(a)           If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:

 

(1)       that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;

 

(2)       that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;

 

(3)       that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and

 

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(4)       that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.

 

(b)           If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action. Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.

 

(c)           Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by the Company or any paying agent to the Trustee, the Company or such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

 

Section 4.04         Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.

 

The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.

 

article 5

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 5.01         Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.

 

The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) within 15 days after each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.

 

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Section 5.02         Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders.

 

(a)           The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

 

(b)            The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

(c)            Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities, and, in connection with any such communications, the Trustee shall satisfy its obligations under Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the provisions of Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 5.03         Reports by the Company.

 

(a)           The Company will at all times comply with Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act. The Company covenants and agrees to provide (which delivery may be via electronic mail) to the Trustee within 30 days, after the Company files the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company is required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any correspondence filed with the Commission or any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Commission; and provided further, that so long as such filings by the Company are available on the Commission’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval System (EDGAR), or any successor system, such filings shall be deemed to have been filed with the Trustee for purposes hereof without any further action required by the Company. For the avoidance of doubt, a failure by the Company to file annual reports, information and other reports with the Commission within the time period prescribed thereof by the Commission shall not be deemed a breach of this Section 5.03.

 

(b)           Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under Section 5.03 is for informational purposes only and the information and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein, or determinable from information contained therein including the Company’s compliance with any of their covenants thereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on an Officer’s Certificate). The Trustee is under no duty to examine any such reports, information or documents delivered to the Trustee or filed with the Commission via EDGAR to ensure compliance with the provision of this Indenture or to ascertain the correctness or otherwise of the information or the statements contained therein. The Trustee shall have no responsibility or duty whatsoever to ascertain or determine whether the above referenced filings with the Commission on EDGAR (or any successor system) has occurred.

 

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Section 5.04         Reports by the Trustee.

 

(a)           If required by Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee, within sixty (60) days after each May 1, shall send to the Securityholders a brief report dated as of such May 1, which complies with Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(b)           The Trustee shall comply with Section 313(b) and 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(c)           A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each securities exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and also with the Commission. The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any securities exchange.

 

article 6

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

 

Section 6.01         Events of Default.

 

(a)           Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing:

 

(1)       the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension or deferral of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

(2)       the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension or delay of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

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(3)       the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been received by the Company from the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or by the Company and the Trustee by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;

 

(4)       the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

 

(5)       a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 days.

 

(b)           In each and every such case (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above), unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above occurs, the principal of and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series shall automatically be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the holders of the Securities.

 

(c)           At any time after the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder (or, at a meeting of holders of such amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder represented at such meeting), by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that such payment is enforceable under applicable law, upon overdue installments of interest, at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series to the date of such payment or deposit) and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06, and (ii) any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal on (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on Securities of that series that shall not have become due by their terms, shall have been remedied or waived as provided in Section 6.06.

 

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No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

(d)           In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceedings, the Company and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

 

Section 6.02         Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

 

(a)           The Company covenants that (i) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 days, or (ii) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.

 

(b)           If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law or equity out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.

 

(c)           In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affecting the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under the Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.

 

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(d)           All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.

 

In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in the Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

 

Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any Securityholder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

 

Section 6.03         Application of Moneys Collected.

 

Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon of the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

FIRST: To the payment of costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06;

 

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SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively; and

 

THIRD: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Company or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto.

 

Section 6.04         Limitation on Suits.

 

No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such Securityholder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as Trustee hereunder; (iii) such Securityholder or Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request; (iv) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and (v) during such 60 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series (or at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of such series represented at such meeting) do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request.

 

Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary or any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

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Section 6.05         Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

 

(a)           Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.

 

(b)           No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

 

Section 6.06        Control by Securityholders.

 

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or subject the Trustee in its sole discretion to personal liability. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed, subject to the Trustee’s duties under the Trust Indenture Act, would involve the Trustee in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the Securityholders not involved in the proceeding. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding affected thereby, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c))), provided, however, that the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration. Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

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Section 6.07         Undertaking to Pay Costs.

 

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees and expenses, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

 

article 7

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 7.01        Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.

 

(a)           The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

 

(b)           No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

(i)           prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:

 

(A)       the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

 

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(B)       in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture;

 

(ii)          the Trustee shall not be liable to any Securityholder or to any other Person for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

(iii)         the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series;

 

(iv)          none of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if there is reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it;

 

(v)           The Trustee shall not be required to give any bond or surety in respect of the performance of its powers or duties hereunder;

 

(vi)          The permissive right of the Trustee to do things enumerated in this Indenture shall not be construed as a duty of the Trustee; and

 

(vii)        No Trustee shall have any duty or responsibility for any act or omission of any other Trustee appointed with respect to a series of Securities hereunder.

 

Section 7.02        Certain Rights of Trustee.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:

 

(a)           The Trustee may conclusively rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

(b)           Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company by any authorized Officer of the Company (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);

 

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(c)          The Trustee may consult with counsel and the opinion or written advice of such counsel or, if requested, any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

 

(d)          The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity reasonably acceptable to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred therein or thereby; nothing contained herein shall, however, relieve the Trustee of the obligation, upon the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to a series of the Securities (that has not been cured or waived), to exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and to use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs;

 

(e)           The Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

 

(f)           The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security, or other papers or documents or inquire as to the performance by the Company of one of its covenants under this Indenture, unless requested in writing so to do by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the particular series affected thereby (determined as provided in Section 8.04); provided, however, that if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require security or indemnity reasonably acceptable to the Trustee against such costs, expenses or liabilities as a condition to so proceeding. The reasonable expense of every such examination shall be paid by the Company or, if paid by the Trustee, shall be repaid by the Company upon demand;

 

(g)          The Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder;

 

(h)           In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances;

 

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(i)            In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for special, indirect, punitive or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, loss of profit) irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action; and

 

(j)            The Trustee agrees to accept and act upon instructions or directions pursuant to this Indenture sent by unsecured e-mail, facsimile transmission or other similar unsecured electronic methods; provided, however, that such instructions or directions shall be signed by an authorized representative of the party providing such instructions or directions. If the party elects to give the Trustee e-mail or facsimile instructions (or instructions by a similar electronic method) and the Trustee in its discretion elects to act upon such instructions, the Trustee’s understanding of such instructions shall be deemed controlling. The Trustee shall not be liable for any losses, costs or expenses arising directly or indirectly from the Trustee’s reliance upon and compliance with such instructions notwithstanding such instructions conflict or are inconsistent with a subsequent written instruction. The party providing electronic instructions agrees to assume all risks arising out of the use of such electronic methods to submit instructions and directions to the Trustee, including without limitation the risk of the Trustee acting on unauthorized instructions, and the risk or interception and misuse by third parties. The Trustee may request that the Company deliver an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to furnish the Trustee with Officer’s Certificates, Company Orders and any other matters or directions pursuant to this Indenture;

 

(k)          The rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder and under the Securities, and each agent, custodian or other person employed to act under this Indenture; and

 

(l)           The Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of any Default or Event of Default (other than an Event of Default constituting the failure to pay the interest on, or the principal of, the Securities if the Trustee also serves as the paying agent for such Securities) until the Trustee shall have received written notification in the manner set forth in this Indenture or a Responsible Officer of the Trustee shall have obtained actual knowledge.

 

Section 7.03         Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities.

 

(a)           The recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same. The Trustee shall not be responsible for any statement in any registration statement, prospectus, or any other document in connection with the sale of Securities. The Trustee shall not be responsible for any rating on the Securities or any action or omission of any rating agency.

 

(b)           The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.

 

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(c)           The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of any of the Securities or of the proceeds of such Securities, or for the use or application of any moneys paid over by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture or established pursuant to Section 2.01, or for the use or application of any moneys received by any paying agent other than the Trustee.

 

Section 7.04         May Hold Securities.

 

The Trustee or any paying agent or Security Registrar, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, paying agent or Security Registrar.

 

Section 7.05         Moneys Held in Trust.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder except such as it may agree with the Company to pay thereon.

 

Section 7.06        Compensation and Reimbursement.

 

(a)          The Company shall pay to the Trustee for each of its capacities hereunder from time to time compensation for its services as the Company and the Trustee shall from time to time agree upon in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

 

(b)           The Company shall indemnify each of the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder against any loss, liability or expense (including the cost of defending itself and including the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel) incurred by it except as set forth in Section 7.06(c) in the exercise or performance of its powers, rights or duties under this Indenture as Trustee or Agent. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnity. The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have one separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.

 

(c)           The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through negligence or bad faith.

 

(d)           To ensure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities on all funds or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal of or interest on particular Securities. When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services in connection with an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(4) or (5), the expenses (including the reasonable fees and expenses of its counsel) and the compensation for services in connection therewith are to constitute expenses of administration under any bankruptcy law. The provisions of this Section 7.06 shall survive the termination of this Indenture and the resignation or removal of the Trustee.

 

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Section 7.07        Reliance on Officer’s Certificate.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01, whenever in the administration of the provisions of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it reasonably necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting to take any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

 

Section 7.08        Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.

 

If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Company shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 7.09        Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.

 

There shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to the Securities issued hereunder which shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or any state or territory thereof or of the District of Columbia, or a corporation or other Person permitted to act as trustee by the Commission, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, having a combined capital and surplus of at least fifty million U.S. dollars ($50,000,000), and subject to supervision or examination by federal, state, territorial, or District of Columbia authority.

 

If such corporation or other Person publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of the aforesaid supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation or other Person shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. The Company may not, nor may any Person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Company, serve as Trustee. In case at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in Section 7.10.

 

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Section 7.10         Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.

 

(a)           The Trustee or any successor hereafter appointed may at any time resign with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company and the Securityholders of such series. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the sending of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series, or any Securityholder of that series who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

 

(b)           In case at any time any one of the following shall occur:

 

(i)       the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 7.08 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months; or

 

(ii)      the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 7.09 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Securityholder; or

 

(iii)     the Trustee shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or commence a voluntary bankruptcy proceeding, or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or consented to, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation;

 

then, in any such case, the Company may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities and appoint a successor trustee by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may, on behalf of that holder and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

 

(c)           The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to such series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company and may appoint a successor Trustee for such series with the consent of the Company.

 

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(d)           Any resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of a series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 7.11.

 

(e)           Any successor trustee appointed pursuant to this Section may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more series or all of such series, and at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series.

 

Section 7.11         Acceptance of Appointment By Successor.

 

(a)           In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of any amounts due to it pursuant to the provisions of Section 7.06, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all the rights, powers, and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.

 

(b)           In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor trustee shall accept such appointment and which (i) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates, (ii) shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (iii) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust, that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee and that no Trustee shall be responsible for any act or failure to act on the part of any other Trustee hereunder; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein, such retiring Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates have no further responsibility for the exercise of rights and powers or for the performance of the duties and obligations vested in the Trustee under this Indenture, and each such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee, to the extent contemplated by such supplemental indenture, the property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates.

 

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(c)           Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Section, as the case may be.

 

(d)            No successor trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.

 

(e)           Upon acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee as provided in this Section, the Company shall send notice of the succession of such trustee hereunder to the Securityholders. If the Company fails to transmit such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be transmitted at the expense of the Company.

 

Section 7.12         Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.

 

Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to all or substantially all the corporate trust business of the Trustee, including the administration of the trust created by this Indenture, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 7.08 and eligible under the provisions of Section 7.09, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities.

 

Section 7.13         Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company.

 

The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein.

 

Section 7.14         Notice of Default.

 

If any Event of Default occurs and is continuing and if such Event of Default is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall send to each Securityholder in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act notice of the Event of Default within the earlier of 90 days after it occurs and 30 days after it is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee or written notice of it is received by the Trustee, unless such Event of Default has been cured; provided, however, that, except in the case of a default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determine that the withholding of such notice is in the interest of the Securityholders.

 

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article 8

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

 

Section 8.01         Evidence of Action by Securityholders.

 

Whenever in this Indenture it is provided that the holders of a majority or specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series may take any action (including the making of any demand or request, the giving of any notice, consent or waiver or the taking of any other action), the fact that at the time of taking any such action the holders of such majority or specified percentage of that series have joined therein may be evidenced by any instrument or any number of instruments of similar tenor executed by such holders of Securities of that series in person or by agent or proxy appointed in writing.

 

If the Company shall solicit from the Securityholders of any series any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, the Company may, at its option, as evidenced by an Officer’s Certificate, fix in advance a record date for such series for the determination of Securityholders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so. If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action may be given before or after the record date, but only the Securityholders of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be Securityholders for the purposes of determining whether Securityholders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities of that series have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, and for that purpose the Outstanding Securities of that series shall be computed as of the record date; provided, however, that no such authorization, agreement or consent by such Securityholders on the record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than six months after the record date.

 

Section 8.02         Proof of Execution by Securityholders.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, proof of the execution of any instrument by a Securityholder (such proof will not require notarization) or his or her agent or proxy and proof of the holding by any Person of any of the Securities shall be sufficient if made in the following manner:

 

(a)          The fact and date of the execution by any such Person of any instrument may be proved in any reasonable manner acceptable to the Trustee.

 

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(b)           The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register of such Securities or by a certificate of the Security Registrar thereof.

 

The Trustee may require such additional proof of any matter referred to in this Section as it shall deem necessary.

 

Section 8.03         Who May be Deemed Owners.

 

Prior to the due presentment for registration of transfer of any Security, the Company, the Trustee, any paying agent and any Security Registrar may deem and treat the Person in whose name such Security shall be registered upon the books of the Security Registrar as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notice of ownership or writing thereon made by anyone other than the Security Registrar) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, premium, if any, and (subject to Section 2.03) interest on such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any paying agent nor any Security Registrar shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.

 

Section 8.04         Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded.

 

In determining whether the holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Securities of a particular series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, the Securities of that series that are owned by the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities of such series that the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. The Securities so owned that have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding for the purposes of this Section, if the pledgee shall establish to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not a Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company or any such other obligor. In case of a dispute as to such right, any decision by the Trustee taken upon the advice of counsel shall be full protection to the Trustee.

 

Section 8.05         Actions Binding on Future Securityholders.